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I GULICK HYGIENE SERIES 

TOWN y^ND 
^^^ CITY 



It 





/ I I >! 



\ 



\ BY FRANCES GULJCKJEW: J 





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THE GULICK HYGIENE SERIES 

BY 

LUTHER HALSEY GULICK, M.D. 



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THE GULICK HYGIEHE . S E RiE{S : r-'. 

Book Three 

TOWN AND CITY 

BY 

FRANCES GULICK JEWETT 



GINN & COMPANY 

BOSTON . NEW YORK . CHICAGO . LONDON 



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0- \^v 



Entered at Stationers* Hall 



Copyright, 1906, by 
LUTHER H. GULICK 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

69.9A 



etc tithtnttum ^tttg 

GINN & COMPANY . PRO- 
PRIETORS . BOSTON • U.S.A. 



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INTRODUCTION 

While the laws of personal hygiene are recognized on 
every side and even taught to children, the wider laws of 
community hygiene have not, in the past, been included 
in the curriculum of our public schools. This might seem 
strange save for the fact that the entire subject of public 
health is modern. 

Indeed, with the power of the microbe unsuspected 
until 1865, with tubercle bacilli and the laws which con- 
trol them undiscovered until 1882, with universal igno- 
rance of the cure of diphtheria until 1892, and of malaria 
and yellow fever until 1 901, it is not surprising that sci- 
entific facts about these preventable diseases have not 
as yet, to any appreciable extent, been adapted to the 
understanding of young children. 

At last, however, between the progress of scientific 
research on the one hand and of unprecedented acquaint- 
ance with city conditions on the other, instruction in 
the importance of the laws of civic hygiene has become 
not only possible but imperative. 

Scientists have learned not merely the causes of a high 
death rate but the way to avoid them. Moreover, the 
modern methods of research are of such profound 

5 4 1 42 4 Digitized by GoOglC 



iv INTRODUCTION 

interest that I can discover no reason why they should 
not be presented to school children with the sure expecta- 
tion of enlisting their enthusiastic cooperation in the 
work of raising the standards of city life. 

In planning this hygiene series I have had in mind 
the fact that children are influenced not so much by 
dogmatic assertion as by acquaintance with facts and 
courses of reasoning. Assure a child that unwashed 
people, crowded into unclean rooms, breathing impure 
air, and drinking impure water are more likely to be ill 
than clean people in clean rooms, breathing pure air, and 
drinking pure water, and he may or may not believe you ; 
but explain to him the nature of those microbes which 
endanger life through water, air, and food ; show by actual 
facts how the death rate has been raised and lowered; 
demonstrate by individual example the laws of contagion, 
and we shall convince the child by the same facts that 
have convinced his elders. 

The capacity to profit by generalized statements 
comes only with age. For this reason, in the present 
series, even on the subjects of alcohol and narcotics, 
dogmatic assertion and the easy moral have been 
avoided. Treatment of subjects by this method neces- 
sarily increases the volume of the text, but it also 
rouses and holds the interest of the reader. 

Although I have thus planned the series myself, the 
writing of each separate volume has been done by others. 



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INTRODUCTION V 

It IS but just to these authors to say that in prepar- 
ing the facts for presentation they have spared no 
pains to acquaint themselves with the work of the 
original investigators on whose authority their own 
statements rest. In proof of this is the present vol- 
ume in which pure water is discussed. The author 
visited the experiment station in Lawrence, Massachu- 
setts, where more scientific work has been done in 
sewage filtration than elsewhere in the United States, 
made careful study of water conditions in New York 
and other American cities, and consulted, among other 
works, the list of books contained in the bibliography 
at the close of this volume. Other subjects are treated 
with similar thoroughness. 

Owing to the direct style and swift movement of each 
chapter, the vast amount of work involved is not rec- 
ognized at once by the casual reader, but other readers 
will recognize the fact that nothing of this sort has ever 
before been done for children. In certain directions, 
indeed, the present volume represents a new step in the 
evolution of young citizens. 

During the past few years important contributions 
have been made to the fund of information concerning 
the effects of the use of alcohol and narcotics. These 
contributions come partly from scientific work in Ger- 
many and elsewhere, partly from recent investigations 
of the interrelations of drink with crime and pauperism, 



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vi INTRODUCTION 

and partly from the anti-alcohol requirements of large 
business corporations in the United States. 

These facts, thus contributed, together with those 
more generally known, furnish a story of such excep- 
tional vividness and power that, in regard to scientific 
instruction on the subjects of alcohol and narcotics, we 
cannot but be faithful to the demands of school law in 

the various states. 

Luther Halsey Gulick 



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CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

I. Growth of Cities * . . i 

II. Results of Overcrowding 9 

III. Reforms 16 

IV. Expense of Alcohol to State and City .... 23 
V. Clean Streets in New York - 30 

VI. Juvenile Street-Cleaning Leagues 39 

VII. Garbage, Ashes, and Rubbish 45 

VIII. Parks, Playgrounds, and Public Baths .... 58 

IX. Fires 68 

X. Good Business and Alcohol 78 

XI. Good Business and Alcohol {continued) 84 

XII. Water Supply for New York and Water Waste 

IN Cities 89 

XIII. Drinking Water 99 

XIV. Getting Water to Town 107 

XV. Rivers, Drinking Water, and Sewage 117 

XVI. Purification of Water and Sewage 125 

XVII. Preventable Disease and the Japanese Army . .133 

XVIII. Tobacco and National Vigor 141 

XIX. Food Inspection 149 

XX. Food Inspection {continued) 155 



VII 



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viii CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

XXI. Epidemics and the Discovery of Disease Microbes 165 

XXII. Some Safeguards against Epidemics 174 

XXIII. Vaccination 184 

XXIV. The Enemy of the City, — Tuberculosis 192 

XXV. War against Tuberculosis 203 

XXVI. City Health and Alcohol 213 

XXVII. Little Turtle, Abraham Lincoln, and the Lincoln 

Legion 221 

XXVIII. Why Mosquitoes Should Go 228 

XXIX. What New Orleans and Brookline Did 236 

XXX. Hospital, Dispensary, and Ambulance 244 

Bibliographical list 253 

Questions 257 

Glossary 267 

Index. 273 



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TOWN AND CITY 

CHAPTER I 
GROWTH OF CITIES 

An Indian in his wigwam on the prairie may have 
quite as kind a heart as a city man in his city home; 
he may also be more vigorous and able to run faster, 
but as a rule he cannot in a single day do so much as 
the city man, either for himself or for his neighbor. 

Just here, then, is the secret of our growing towns and 
cities. Human beings are becoming more and more 
anxious to give and receive all they can from day to 
day; and they wish to do this as conveniently and 
promptly as possible. 

It turns out also that the more they have the more 
they want, and the more they want the more they learn 
to make, until to-day men and women all over the world 
are living together as groups of people who depend on 
one another. Some are manufacturing goods, some are 
selling them ; some supply food, others supply wits. All 
are buying something, and in one way or another they 
all serve each other. 



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''2^--':V-* •::..:// ,..- TOWN AND CITY 

Indeed, that is the one great advantage of our cities: 
people are close enough together to help each other at 
the shortest notice and in the best way. As time goes on, 
however, notice what happens. See how it has worked 
on Manhattan Island, where New York City stands. 




Homes on the Prairie 

In 1700 the houses of the city were far apart; wide 
streets were between them, large grounds around them, 
where children played ; grass was everywhere, also trees, 
birds, and flowers. One hundred years later many more 
houses stood on the same space of ground; less grass 
was near them, fewer trees, no birds, hardly any flowers. 
One hundred years later still in certain parts of the city 
no grass could be seen as far as the eye could reach; 



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GROWTH OF CITIES 3 

no trees, no birds, only a few flowers in flowerpots, 
while the houses were so tall that the narrow, paved 
streets between them looked like hard, slender valleys 
between stone and brick mountains. Little chance for 
sunlight there! Instead of carriages drawn by horses, 




A Village Home 



there now appeared cars, automobiles, bicycles, and busi- 
ness wagons; and these rushed so fast here and there 
that children had to give up playing on the streets. 

This was bad enough; yet into that crowded place 
people were now pouring at the rate of one hundred 
thousand every year ; and, strange to say, they all found 
room to live. How did they do it ? 

Land was growing more valuable each year, and to 
make the most of it men ran their buildings up from 
three to seven and eight stories : one tenement in New 



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4 TOWN AND CITY 

York City is twelve stories high. They packed these 
houses so close together that, in some cases, almost no 
land in each block was left for a breathing space. They 
divided and subdivided each broad flat into scores and 
hundreds of tiny rooms; for, from first to last, the one 
object in mind was to make as many rooms as possible, 
so as to accommodate as many people as possible and 
receive rent from them all. 

The result was that in 1897 five blocks of buildings 
in New York City held about three thousand people 
each; and by 1904 there were over three hundred and 
fifty thousand dark, unventilated rooms in the city. (Do 
not try to remember these figures, but notice how large 
they are.) 

In 1900 one such block held twenty-seven hundred 
and eighty-one men, women, and children who were 
stowed away in fifteen hundred and eighty-eight rooms. 
As it happened, over four hundred of these rooms had 
no windows whatever and no outside doors, while six 
hundred other rooms opened into the air shafts. Now an 
air shaft is often simply a twenty-eight-inch wide air well 
that runs up through the center of the building. Any- 
where from twenty to sixty windows open into it, and 
wretched odors from scores of kitchens and bedrooms 
stream into it so constantly that people often nail up 
their own windows to keep out the smells and the 
polluted air from other rooms. 



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GROWTH OF CITIES 5 

Taken altogether, then, in a single block there were 
over one thousand rooms which no ray of sunlight could 
ever find, which no breath of really fresh air could ever 
enter. In fact, when the doors of most of those rooms 
were shut they were like black, airless boxes with the 




Homes in New York City 



covers on. Nevertheless, in 1900, in that very block, 
four hundred and sixty-six babies were trying to keep 
alive. No wonder they often failed! No wonder they 
died even faster than the grown folks I 

Still, by running up those towering houses, by mak- 
ing many rooms, by crowding human beings into them 



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6 TOWN AND CITY 

regardless of life and health, New York City manages to 
accommodate hundreds and thousands of fresh arrivals 
every year. The end of it is that, in a certain district 
of the city, people have stowed themselves away at the 
rate of two hundred and ninety thousand to the square 
mile. This simply means that just there more human 
beings live closer together than they do anywhere else 
in the world. 

Since that sort of crowding must be woefully uncom- 
fortable, we wonder why yet other people are willing 
to increase the crowd by going to that particular spot- 
to live. 

The truth is that, as a rule, when a man goes to a 
city to carry on his work he cannot afford either to buy 
a house or to build one; still he must find a home for 
himself and his family somewhere, and for the sake of 
saving time and car fare he hires rooms as near his 
work as possible. Then, too, other men who are hunting 
for work go to the same region. They also hire rooms 
there; and at any point in a city where those two 
streams of people meet, there the houses are tallest, the 
streets narrowest, the rooms darkest. 

Not only this, but multitudes of these men and women 
know nothing about the advantages of fresh air, cleanli- 
ness, and ventilation. They must also economize all they 
can. When, therefore, they have all they can do to buy 
food and clothes for the family, and when they find that 



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An Air Shaft Twenty Inches Wide and Six Stories Deep 



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8 TOWN AND CITY 

they can save four or five dollars a month on rent by 
living in dark, close sleeping rooms, they are almost 
sure to do it. 

Generally the consequences of overcrowding are dark- 
ness, unclean houses, unclean air, and unclean people. 
Disease microbes are sure to follow ; and wherever they 
go the history is the same, for disease and death travel 
with them. 

On the other hand, in every city there are thousands 
of homes with room enough around them to give grass, 
flowers, and children a chance ; and each home of that 
sort raises the health standard for the entire city. Wide, 
clean streets full of sunshine do the same thing ; yet the 
most beautiful home in the most beautiful city is in 
danger when, in another part of the same city, narrow 
streets and crowded blocks are filled with men and 
women who live in the midst of uncleanness, impure 
air, and disease. 



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CHAPTER II 

RESULTS OF OVERCROWDING 

No owner of tenement houses in a crowded city would 
for a moment think of walking through the streets with 
a revolver, shooting down thirty or forty persons out of 
every thousand whom he should meet, for the sake of 
robbing them. But he does something quite as bad 
when, knowing that his houses ^re death traps, he rents 
them to thousands' of people, who live in them and die 
in them while he pockets the rent. 

Mulberry Bend in New York City used to be one of 
these terrible places. In early days it was "a crooked 
three-acre lot with a path through it made by cows." 
But it ended by being covered close with rotten build- 
ings, narrow stairways, halls so dark that a man could 
not see his hand before his face, and small unventilated 
rooms, where every year people died at the rate of forty 
or more for every thousand who lived in them. 

In London the crowding is so great that three hun- 
dred thousand of its citizens live in tenements of 
one room for a family. Forty thousand of these live 
five in a single room, while eight thousand live eight 
in a room. 

9 

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TOWN AND CITY 



When overcrowding reaches such a point everything 
suffers. Careless people using dark halls, cellars, and 
bath rooms are not neat in disposing of their rubbish, 
their garbage, and their soiled clothes. They act as 
if they thought the darkness were going to save them 




Mulberry Bend, a Notorious Slum 

from disease as well as from disgrace. Yet everything 
helps disease along in these neglected houses. Gas pipes 
leak and sewer pipes are out of order ; the air grows heavy 
with carbon dioxid, with illuminating gas, with foul gases 
from broken sewers, with the smell of dirt ; while at the 
same time dampness adds to the dangerous conditions. 



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RESULTS OF bVERCROVVDlNG 



II 



Mr. Riis, who has studied New York City thoroughly, 
was in despair when he saw the condition of things. 
He found cellars so near the river that the water soaked 
through and rose and fell with the tide. Indeed, he says 




A Dark, Interior Room 
There are over three hundred and sixty thousand like it in New York City 

he knew cases where parents " kept their children in bed 
till ebb tide " to keep them dry. 

Fifty years ago in Boston the situation seems to have 
been even more tragic ; for during a cholera epidemic, 
when a certain doctor went to see a sick woman who 
lived in a cellar, he found the water so deep that the only 
way he could reach her bed was by walking on planks 
laid from one stool to another. 



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12 



TOWN AND crrv 



In those days, of course, no one knew that dampness, 
darkness, and dirt are just the three conditions that 
are best for microbes and worst for men; to-day those 
facts are plain enough. It is also quite as plain that 
even when a city is clean, well built, and uncrowded, the 

inhabitants of the place 
may die each year at the 
rate of seventeen for every 
thousand. Men know this 
from records that have 
been kept ; they are, there- 
fore, startled over other 
city records which show 
that when people live in 
damp, dark cellars, or in 
dark, crowded, unclean 
houses, the number of 
deaths jumps to thirty or 
forty for each thousand. 

In New York City the 
darkest and most unwhole- 
some houses are rear tenements which stand so close 
behind the front tenements that the distance between 
them is from two inches to five feet. Of course, each 
building keeps daylight from the other; at the same 
time the rear tenement is always the older, the more 
unclean, and the more neglected of the two. Naturally, 




Rubbish in the Courtyard 



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RESULTS OF OVERCROWDING 



13 



of course, the rents are lower here and the people more 
crowded. 

Remember these facts and read the following figures. 
Mr. De Forest, in his book called The Tenement House 
Problem^ tells us that, in 
the First Ward, in tene- 
ments which had no 
houses behind them, about 
twenty-nine people died 
out of each thousand that 
lived there; whereas, in 
the same ward, when there 
was a rear tenement, the 
deaths rose to sixty-one 
for each thousand of the 
occupants. Sadder yet, in 
such places, when an epi- 
demic once had a start, 
nothing stopped it, — 
young and old, strong and 
weak, all seemed doomed. 

This is bad enough for 
grown folks, but babies always suf¥er most in such 
places. In those rear tenements, therefore, the death 
rate for babies rose to two hundred and four for every 
thousand ; that is, one baby died for every five that were 
bom. When men began to realize all this, they called 




Where Microbes Live Two Years 
AND Longer 



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14 TOWN AND CITY 

those places " infant slaughter houses," for they said that 
the condition of the buildings killed the babies. 

In Berlin, Germany, in 1885, there were over thirteen 
hundred thousand residents, and seventy-three thousand 
of them lived in families in* one-room tenements. That 
means that each family lived, slept, cooked, and ate in the 
same room. They were distributed as follows : 

In one-room tenements 73,ooo 

In two-room tenements 382,000 

In three-room tenements 432,000 

In four-room tenements 398,000 

Now compare those figures with this other table which 
shows the death rate in each set of rooms : 

Per 
Thousand 

In one-room tenements 163.5 

In two-room tenements 22.5 

In three-room tenements 7.5 

In four-room tenements 5.4 

These astounding figures showed that families in 
four-room tenements were thirty times as likely to live 
through the year as those in one-room tenements. The 
explanation is the old one that we began to understand 
in Good Health, Any human being who has too little 
oxygen or too little sunshine, who breathes air with gas 
in it, or odors from soiled clothes, from leaking sewer 
pipes, from decaying food and unwashed people, is doing 
what he can to make his body too weak to resist disease 



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RESULTS OF OVERCROWDING 15 

microbes. In the end, therefore, he may be as helpless 
before them as a half-starved man is helpless before a 
wild animal, — the animal and the microbe are likely to 
be victorious in both cases. 

This is serious enough, though it is not the whole of 
the story, for all thinkers know that the place a" man 
lives in affects his character; that the more crowded, 
unclean, and uncomfortable a tenement is, the more law- 
less and reckless do the inhabitants become ; that jails, 
hospitals, and asylums are filled with streams of unfortu- 
nate citizens who pour into them from the more unhealth- 
ful tenements. 

In fact it is true that every year forty thousand men 
and women find their way from the same part of New 
York to the penitentiaries and the almshouses of the 
city. 

There are two reasons, then, why every part of a city 
should be kept in healthful condition : 

1. Because cities need men and women 
with strong bodies. 

2. Because cities need men and women 
with strong characters. 



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CHAPTER III 

REFORMS 

In 1902 New York City established a new Tenement 
House Department, and after that reforms moved along 
at a brisk pace. 

Four hundred inspectors were then chosen and sent 
out to visit the eighty-two thousand tenements of the 
city and to report on the condition of these buildings, 
which held twenty-three hundred thousand people. The 
precise definition of a tenement is a house in which three 
or more families live and keep house separately, or where 
more than two families live on one floor. 

For the first time in the history of New York her 
tenements were being thoroughly examined. Sometimes 
the tenants were curious over the work of the inspectors ; 
at other times they were indignant; but they always 
ended by being grateful. 

One of the first inspectors visited a five-story house 
on the East Side; and crowds of Italian men, women, 
and children gathered around him, curiously wondering 
what he wanted. They were astonished to have him go 
directly to the cellar. He himself was astonished two 
minutes later when he stepped of¥ the lowest stair into 



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REFORMS 1 7 

a pond of cold water. The children giggled, of course ; 
but he lighted a torch and looked around. Such a sight! 
Baskets and boxes and trash of every sort were afloat. 
Indeed, as he said afterwards, it looked as if a ship had 
been wrecked down there. Everybody was ready to 
help, however, and with chairs, stones, and planks he 
made a bridge across to the waste pipe. There he found 
the trouble, — a hole three inches wide and six inches 
long, with all the waste water of the entire house pouring 
through it into the cellar. 

With such an introduction to the house as that, 
he was prepared for anything else^ — water pipes and 
flushing apparatus out of order; woodwork around 
the sinks so rotten that the odor of the place was 
intolerable; walls, ceilings, and floors unclean beyond 
description. 

After this report was sent in reformation began. 
Carpenters, plasterers, and plumbers went to work ; 
pipes were mended, flushing basins put in order, ceil- 
ings renewed, walls whitened. And when the inspector 
visited the place again a few weeks later he says he 
should not have known it except for the Italians. But 
they knew him at once and proudly took him around 
from one part of the house to another to show off the 
wonderful improvements, — new drain, dry cellar, new 
washtubs, clean walls, fresh ceilings, all as tidy and 
wholesome as possible. 



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1 8 TOWN AND CITY 

That was the experience of one man. Reports also 
went in by the hundred and the thousand from all the 
other inspectors, until the department at last felt that 
they had pretty definite knowledge to go by. They 
then decided to do three things: 

1. To give the city the right kind of new 
tenement houses. 

2. To continue with the work of making 
the old ones fit to live in. 

3. To supervise both the old and the new 
so carefully and constantly that they would 
be kept in sanitary condition. 

Many owners of tenements resisted these improve- 
ments, saying that they could not afford to pay for them, 
but the officers of the department were firm ; the law 
was behind them and they enforced it. Hundreds of 
the worst tenements were bought by the city and pulled 
down ; others were repaired and altered ; while, as fast 
as possible, new tenements were built. And now came a 
pleasant surprise. In many cases the owners themselves 
began to be grateful; for they found that instead of 
objecting to higher rent, thousands of citizens were 
willing to pay a little extra for the sake of clean rooms, 
pure air, and more sunshine. In fact they often seemed 
enthusiastic about these things. 

Still the greatest enthusiasm was over the new tene- 
ment houses themselves. During 1902 five hundred and 



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JkEFORMS 19 

forty-three of these were put up, and in 1903 there were 
over twice as many more. They were such an improve- 
ment over the old buildings and people were so anxious 
to live in them that they were rented not only as fast as 
they were finished, but every room was engaged even 
before the buildings were fairly up. Sometimes people 
even went so far in their eagerness that they rented 
their new homes from the drawings of them, which they 
examined before the first stone of the building was laid. 

More than that, in certain parts of the city there was 
such great interest in the matter that troops of men and 
women took their friends with them on Sunday excur- 
sions to visit the new tenements. They enjoyed the light 
rooms, bathrooms, wide halls, fresh air, and sunshine. 
Rents were a little higher to be sure, but everything 
was built according to the new law; and since that time 
people have talked about "new-law houses," which means 
houses built since 1901, and "old-law houses," built before 
1901. Notice the difference between the two sets: 

Old-law houses. Hundreds of small rooms with no 
outside door or window ; no chance for light ; no fresh 
air in the building except through the slamming front 
door; halls narrow, sixty feet long, so dark that you 
stumbled over ragged creeping babies without seeing 
them ; stairs narrow, steep, dark ; cellars damp, neg- 
lected, often filthy ; bathrooms in common for the entire 
building; very little protection against fire; central air 



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20 TOWN AND CITY 

shaft twenty-eight inches wide ; dust, dirt, rubbish, and 
darkness everywhere. Yet the rent for these dreadful 
places was often very high. 

New-law houses. No room without a window opening 
out of doors; good light and ventilation; halls square, 
broad, light ; stairs neither steep nor dark ; every one of 
them fireproof; cellars damp proof; separate bathroom 
arrangements for each family; courtyard not less than 
twelve and a half feet wide and twenty-eight feet long; 
light everywhere so that dust and rubbish show plainly 
and have little chance. These new dwellings were often 
built by honest people who were not willing to charge 
too much for rent. 

No wonder those buildings were besieged by people 
who wished to live in them. 

Yet even in making old tenements respectable the 
department did great things. Here are a few figures 
to show what the reformers accomplished in eighteen 
months. They found the names of forty-four thousand 
tenement-house owners and saw to it that they repaired 
their property according to law. They cleared out eleven 
thousand cellars and halls full of rubbish and filth; 
cleaned thirteen thousand ceilings and fifteen thousand 
walls; put down ten thousand new floors and placed 
seventeen hundred fire escapes. It is not necessary to 
remember these figures ; simply notice what a great work 
was done in a short time. 



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REFORMS 21 

As this was going on tenants were encouraged to 
complain to the department about owners who were not 
keeping their houses up to the standard of the law. 
Twenty-five thousand of these complaints came and 
were looked into. Some of them were certainly not 
very reasonable ; for Mr. De Forest, from whose report 
I take many of these facts, says that one old lady was 
indignant because the department did not clear the fleas 
out of her room, while another wanted somebody to 
stop the janitor from raising dust when he swept, — a 
most important point, yet the department could not 
take charge of such details. 

With so much being done, New York was cleaner 
and in better health in 1903 than ever before. As 
Mr. Riis says, she had made fifty years' progress in four 
years ; and the one great fact that proved this was the 
change in her death rate. I give a table covering several 
years to show the gain : ^^^^^^ 

Thousand 

1866 33-00 

1887 "... 26.00 

1897 20.03 

1 901 20.00 

1902 18.70 

1903 181 I 

If the population of New York City is four million, as 
it soon will be, a small change in the death rate makes 
a large change in the whole number of those who die. 



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22 TOWN AND CITY 

« 

Indeed, in this case, even the figures at the right of the 
decimal point become an important matter. Let one 
additional life be saved for every thousand people every 
year, and enough will be kept alive to fill a good-sized 
village. Notice the following figures carefully : 

4,000,000 dying at rate of 26 per 1000 a year= 104,000 

« « « « 20 " . " " = 80,000 

« " " "18 " " " = 72,000 

u u « ** 17 « " " = 68,000 

In New York City, therefore, if the death rate should 
be seventeen instead of eighteen out of every thousand, 
four thousand lives would be saved in one year. This is 
worth striving for. 

In tenement-house improvement Boston has worked 
as well as New York. Indeed, since 1890 there have 
been citizens* movements in Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Cleveland, Washington, Baltimore, St. Louis, Cincinnati, 
Kansas City, and thousands of smaller places. Cities 
take lessons from each other, and the larger the city the 
larger the lesson. For this reason New York City is the 
best place to study overcrowding and reforms, for no 
city in the United States can compare with New York 
in size and in improvement of tenement houses. 



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CHAPTER IV 

EXPENSE OF ALCOHOL TO STATE AND CITY 

When reforms are such an expense to a city, it is well 
for the citizens to know what other expenses must be 
met, and to decide whether money is being wasted in any 
way. We learn something about this from the state of 
Massachusetts, for this state leads the country in the way 
she has studied the expense of crime to both the city and 
the state. 

In 1880 a certain committee of men proposed to find 
out the exact connection between crime and alcohol, and 
to do it they kept track of the work done by nine crimi- 
nal courts in Suffolk County. These remarkable figures 
show what they discovered : 

Sentences for drink 12,221 

Sentences for illegal selling 6S 

Sentences for other crimes 4,610 

Total sentences in Suffolk County for one year . . . 16,899 

Notice the difference, — twelve thousand alcohol arrests 

and four thousand arrests for all the other crimes put 

together I Such was the record for one year. But it seems 

that, for twenty previous years, the same sort of statistics 

23 



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24 TOWN AND CITY 

had been kept. They show that during that time sixty 
sentences out of every hundred in the whole state of 
Massachusetts were for what are called "liquor offenses." 

Matters did not improve fast after that, for in 1895 
the same committee studied again, and found that during 
the year sixty-six sentences out of every hundred in the 
state were for actual drunkenness. Besides, there were 
thousands of cases where men were under the influence 
of alcohol when they planned or committed their crime. 
With these included, the committee found that for a single 
year eighty-six out of every hundred who were sentenced 
could point to alcohol as the cause of their disgrace. 

This is bad enough, but it is not all. Think of the 
"Animals and Alcohol" chapters in Good Health 
(Grade 4), and remember how it turned out with the 
unfortunate pups of those unfortunate dogs. As for 
human beings, the case seems to be worse yet. 

Elmira, New York, has a large reformatory for con- 
victs, who come from all parts of the state. They 
often live to be honest law-abiding citizens afterwards ; 
but there is this remarkable fact about them, which was 
shown in 1900. During that year there were 9344 con- 
victs in the reformatory, and of these 3363 had drunken 
ancestors, — a little more than one third I Clearly enough 
the state had to meet extra expense in carrying on the 
reformatory just because those ancestors who drank had 
given weak characters to their descendants. 



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EXPENSE OF ALCOHOL TO STATE AND CITY 25 

Of course no one can ever guess how much a state 
loses by inheriting weak citizens instead of strong ones, 
for the weak will always be a burden, while the strong 
help in every way. But the actual number of prisoners 
can be counted. Moreover, people know what it costs 
to arrest and try them; they also know how much it 
costs to keep them in jail and feed and clothe them. 
And when all these items are added together, it is not 
hard to decide what part of this expense belongs to 
alcohol. Then, too, there are the poorhouse bills that 
come through alcohol. Now the point to keep in mind 
is that all these bills are paid by the people of the state 
through their taxes. 

The statistics of London show that the city pays 
five million dollars a year for the expense of its drunken 
paupers. 

Mr. Henry M. Boies, who has studied the subject 
for years in America, says that the crime committed in 
the United States costs at the rate of $6.20 a year for 
each man, woman, and child in our country. He also says 
that alcohol's share in the expense of this crime is about 
$4.34 for each person. Drunkenness alone, he tells us, 
costs the United States four hundred and twenty million 
dollars a year. 

Do not try to remember any of these large numbers, 
but be sure to remember that it is almost always other 
people who pay the drunkard's bills, and not the man 



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26 TOWN AND CITY 

himself. They pay them by supporting jails, reforma- 
tories, asylums, hospitals, and courthouses; for alcohol 
takes more people to these places than any other one 
thing, and while they are there very often the city has 
to take care of their families besides. No wonder thou- 
sands of people are asking whether it is worth while, — 
whether it would not be more sensible to get rid of crimes 
that come from alcohol, just as we get rid of tuberculosis 
and smallpox by getting rid of the thing that starts them. 
Certain cities and states have tried an experiment. 
For a while they have allowed men to sell all the alcohol 
they wished in public places. Then again they have 
made such laws that it has been impossible for anybody 
to sell alcohol anywhere except in the sliest, most quiet 
fashion. Both ways were tried in Ireland years ago. 
Lord Morpeth was secretary of the country at the time, 
and these are his figures : 

Murders, Attempts at Murders, Offenses against the Person, 
Aggravated Assaults, Cutting, and Maiming 



1837 12,096 

1838 11,058 



1839 1097 

1840 173 



In trying to explain the sudden change in the number 
of crimes, Lord Morpeth could think of but one reason, — 
the temperance work of Father Mathew. This good man 
was so much in earnest in fighting alcohol that thousands 
of other people became enthusiastic, too. The movement 



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EXPENSE OF ALCOHOL TO STATE AND CITY 27 

spread over the island like a wave of the ocean. It also 
swept things so clean that there were only twenty-three 
prisoners in Bridewell prison at Dublin instead of one 
hundred and thirty-six, while one hundred cells were 
empty ; and the Smithfield prison had to go out of busi- 
ness because there was no one to be locked into it. 

To come nearer home again, in 1873 Vineland, New 
Jersey, and New Britain, Connecticut, were towns of 
about the same number of inhabitants. In other ways, 
however, they were very different, as this table shows : 

Vineland New Britain 

Saloons 80 

Cost of paupers $224 $8,500 

Cost of police $75 $7,500 

Cost of liquor sold $319,000 

Habitual drunkards 27 497 

Evidently at that time any taxpayer in New Britain had 
to spend a good deal of his money for the prosperity of 
the alcohol business of the place. He had to do this even 
if he did no drinking himself; for he was taxed to sup- 
port the paupers that alcohol made ; also he had to help 
pay the salaries of the policemen, yet these policemen 
spent their time in taking care of people who drank alco- 
hol and ruined the lives of their friends and neighbors. 

On the other hand, Vineland had no such alcohol 
expenses, and her citizens were able to spend their money 
in pleasanter ways. 



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28 TOWN AND CITY 

The story of New Britain is the story of every city 
that allows alcohol to be sold publicly. And always the 
larger the place the larger are the bills which alcohol 
runs up for the industrious people of the city to settle. 

Brockton, Massachusetts, learned this in 1898, when 
her population was about forty thousand. She had kept 
saloons out for eleven years, then voted to let them in 
again. The following figures tell the history : 

Arrests for 
Drunkenness Assaults 

No-saloon year (1897) 435 44 

Saloon year (1898) 1627 77 

This was such a lesson that the city promptly voted 
against saloons again, when we have : 

1899 

Arrests 455 

Assaults 66 

New York City has never tried the experiment of no 
saloons. Instead, here is her record: 

New York City Statistics for 1904 

Saloons 10,821 

Arrests i33»749 

Expense of Police Department $10,199,206 

Police courts, jails, workhouses, reformatories, etc. $1,310,411 
Hospitals, asylums, and other charities $4,754»38o 

When we remember the difference between the no- 
liquor town of Vineland and the liquor town of New 



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EXPENSE OF ALCOHOL TO STATE AND CITY 29 

Britain, and when we also remember the Massachusetts 
report on crime and alcohol, we can imagine how the 
New York bills for poverty, crime, police, and jails 
would shrivel if alcohol were not sold by those ten 
thousand saloons in the city. 

No good citizen grumbles over honest city bills for 
useful things. On the contrary, he is glad to be taxed 
for pure water and gas, for street cleaning, for schools 
and public buildings, for parks and the fire department ; 
he wants his city to be beautiful and healthful. But he 
does feel inclined to grumble when he finds himself pay- 
ing heavy taxes for the support of something which harms 
the city beyond measure. For, as we have seen already, 
those who use the most alcohol, those who fill the city 
with crime and the jails with criminals, are not apt to be 
those who pay the bills. 

When you see a drunken man arrested, or read of 
men taken to jail or to the hospital because they have 
damaged themselves or other people by using alcohol, 
you might say to yourself : " My honest, hard-working 
father helps pay for arresting the man, for trying him, for 
taking care of him in prison, for feeding and clothing 
him while he is there; and if he dies in the place my 
father will help bury him." You might even whisper 
to yourself, "If my father didn't have to pay so much 
to help settle the disagreeable saloon bills of other 
people, he might have more money for himself and me." 



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CHAPTER V 

CLEAN STREETS IN NEW YORK 

So far as health is concerned, the pictures show why 
clean street air is better than unclean street air for 
breathing. 

Our eyes cannot always prove this, for sometimes one 
space of air looks quite as clear as another. Scientists, 




From Clean Street Air From Unclean Street Air 

Each white spot shows a colony of microbes 

however, have hit on a device for testing the case accu- 
rately. They cover glass plates with gelatin ; catch on 
them samples of whatever floats in the air; let the mi- 
crobes stay there and grow for a while; examine them 

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CLEAN STREETS IN NEW YORK 31 

with a microscope, and afterwards even photograph them 
for ordinary people to see. 

The important discovery which they make from all 
this is that in certain parts of certain cities the street air 
is laden with microbes of every sort, and that disease 
microbes increase with the increase in other kinds. 

More than that, they find that the nearer the ground 
the worse the air is, whereas the higher up they take the 
sample the purer it becomes. They therefore tell us that 
the taller the man the purer the air he breathes, and 
the shorter the child the more microbes has he in his 
air. Thus it turns out that the matter of clean streets is 
especially important for little people. 

Then too, aside from the microbes, the appearance of 
the streets and the odors in them were enough to make 
New York decide to have a reformation in 1895; o^ 
perhaps it was Colonel Waring himself who decided on 
the reformation, for just at that time he was chosen 
head of the street-cleaning department of the city; and 
the result was a new era for New York. When he 
accepted the position things were in such bad shape 
that some of his friends told him he would be able to 
get nothing out of it but disgrace for himself, and that, 
for his own sake he would do well to resign and go back 
to his own home in Newport. But he was not the kind 
of man to run away from hard things; he simply made 
up his mind to conquer the situation. 



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32 TOWN AND CITY 

I suppose that no street in New York to-day is in the 
dreadful condition of those which he found on every side. 

On Ludlow Street, [he says] from the corner of Stanton the street was 
very filthy. Trucks, wagons, and carts were standing in filth of every 
kind from one to two feet deep, and the street was covered with old 
paper, rags, ashes, garbage, straw, and general refuse. . . . On Sullivan 
Street, from Houston to Bleecker, barrels of ashes and garbage were in 
front of nearly every door; and along the side of the street piles of 
garbage, oM rags, tins, oyster shells, old paper, and general refuse from 
two to four feet high, from which a bad stench arose. 

So he describes street after street ; and it seems that 
the narrower and more crowded they were the more 
dreadful was their condition. As the explanation of all 
this, Colonel Waring decided that the whole trouble 
came from mixing politics with street cleaning. He saw 
that from the highest overseer down to men who did 
the sweeping, each separate man received his position 
not only because he promised to vote in a particular 
way on election day, but also because he promised to 
get other men to vote as he did; that is, each man 
received his position as a reward for votes. The one 
important thing seemed to be that a man should vote as 
somebody wished him to, not that he should do the 
work he was paid to do. 

As New York citizens were being taxed to pay for street 
cleaning, they did not fancy the notion of having their 
money go to pay for votes instead of clean streets, and 



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CLEAN STREETS IN NEW YORK 



33 



Colonel Waring agreed with them. He therefore decided 
that the first thing to do was to separate street cleaning 
from politics. When he came to that decision his famous 
saying was that he would " put a man instead of a voter 
behind every broom." 

This does not mean that men were to stop voting ; it 
only means that voting was not to interfere with street 
cleaning. So long as a man worked well he was to keep 
his position no matter 
how he voted, and when 
he did not work well 
he was to go no matter 
whom he voted for. 

With this arrange- 
ment lazy and care- 
less workers were soon 
dropped, while all who 
were willing to do 
faithful work stayed. 

Naturally enough, there was a wonderful change at 
once. The streets grew cleaner. Men who did the 
sweeping not only began to respect themselves, but they 
were more and more respected by everybody else; so 
much so that after a while the street-cleaning depart- 
ment of New York City was heard of throughout the 
United States and Europe, and everywhere it was 
spoken of with admiration. 




A Street Sweeper and his Tools 



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34 TOWN AND. CITY 

The sweepers themselves were called Colonel Waring's 
" White Wings " because their uniform was a loosely 
fitting uniform of white duck with a white helmet to 
match. The suit was generally changed Mondays and 
Thursdays, oftener if necessary, so that a street sweeper 
in New York always looked tidy and clean. 

Colonel Waring had over sixteen hundred regular 
street sweepers, almost a thousand cart drivers, besides 
foremen, superintendents, and overseers ; he also divided 
the city into definite sections, and each man knew exactly 
what part of a particular street he was to keep clean. 
As a rule each had charge of about one third of a mile, 
but on particularly crowded streets there were six 
or seven men to a mile. Here, too, each man had his 
own section, which he was to sweep as many times a 
day as was necessary to keep it clean. No sweeper was 
supposed to work over eight hours a day. 

Before Colonel Waring took charge sweeping machines 
had been used; but he found that sweeping done by 
hand raises less dust and leaves cleaner streets ; in New 
York City, therefore, almost all the sweeping is done in 
this way. It is only on rough cobblestone streets, like 
those in Brooklyn, that machines seem to be needed. 

The newest and best street-cleaning work is done 
through hose flushing. By this method microbes are 
flooded out of the way instead of being stirred up with the 
dust and tossed about into the air for citizens to breathe. 



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CLEAN STREETS IN NEW YORK 



35 



After Colonel Waring had been in charge several 
months it looked as if some magician had been at work 
in New York, for everywhere the streets were really 
clean; on rainy days there was little mud, and on dry 
days little dust. Of course careless people continued to 
scatter paper and rubbish about, but nothing stayed in 
sight long. In fact the change went even farther than 



"""^^^^^? J.3''^ 



* • ' * 



x^mM. 



H ' 

^'.i'^)^ 



Flooding off the Dust and Microbes 

that, for with clean streets the residents began to have 
cleaner front steps, cleaner hallways, and cleaner houses ; 
they themselves were cleaner ; and even in the worst part 
of the city they were more careful about tossing things 
into the street just to be rid of them. 

Besides rubbish, snow is a great city nuisance; and 
any one who saw how New York treated the January 
blizzard of 1905 realized at once that clearing away a 



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36 



TOWN AND CITY 



storm like that is a very different matter from the every- 
day business of keeping the streets clean. 

The city was white and quiet and buried in snow; 
her surface cars were standing in silent rows ; her busi- 
ness was arrested; and the question was how she was 




Getting Rid of City Snow 

ever going to pull herself out of the drifts and begin to 
move around again. 

But she did it. The storm was on Wednesday, and by 
Friday night three hundred thousand cart loads of snow 
had been taken from the most important business streets 
and dumped into the river. To do this ten thousand 
men had worked in day and night relays; they had 
used shovels and picks and horses, with five thousand 
trucks to draw the loads away. The work kept on for 



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CLEAN STREETS IN NEW YORK 



37 



days afterwards, and that one snowstorm cost the city 
about three hundred thousand dollars. 

In every town and city there are two reasons why snow 
should be cleared away as soon as possible after it falls : 

1. City business. It cannot go on briskly 
when people cannot travel about. 

2. City health. If microbes and garbage 
collect in the snow, when melting time comes 
they are ready to thaw out and spread disease 
in the neighborhood. More than that, thou- 
sands of chiMren take cold every winter be- 
cause their feet have been in melting snow 
for hours, with no chance to dry. 

Since no storm can be planned for in advance, and 
since extra street cleaners are needed as soon as the 
snow stops falling, the city lets this work out to con- 
tractors, who hire thousands of men, trucks, and truck 
drivers in advance of every storm, telling them to be 
ready to begin work at a moment's notice. 

When the storm is over, therefore, a valiant snow 
army seems to spring from the ground, and each man 
finds his appointed street Every sort of worker is there 
in every sort of costume, also trucks of many kinds, and 
the work is well done. 

After all, however, the daily work of clearing the 
streets is even more important than getting rid of the 
snow. To-day New York is one of the clean cities of 



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38 



TOWN AND CITY 



the world. Colonel Waring with his White Wings 
made the change between 1895 and 1898. They were a 
well-trained faithful brigade of street soldiers, and they 
transformed New York. They gave her clean pave- 
ments, clean feet, better air, and healthier children; 



^^ mm i^ *!?|^5rW 










Street Sweepers on Inspection Day 

they set an example which has been followed ever since, 
for Dr. John McGaw Woodbury, with many more White 
Wings than Colonel Waring ever had, and many more 
miles of street to sweep, is keeping up the record which 
Colonel Waring made. 

1 In 1906 Greater New York employed 2455 sweepers who covered 1581 miles a 
day. Each day also 75 miles of street were washed by hose and flushing machines. 



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CHAPTER VI 
JUVENILE STREET-CLEANING LEAGUES 

New York children took their part in the street- 
cleaning history of the city when Colonel Waring 
decided to start street-cleaning leagues. 

In a general way these were really boys' clubs carried 
on somewhat like a parliament ; for the boys got together, 
elected their own officers, and prepared a constitution. 
This stated that the object of the club was to " keep the 
streets in a clean and healthful condition." They had 
regular business meetings every week, and at their meet- 
ings they discussed all sorts of subjects connected with 
the health and cleanliness of the city. 

Each club sent reports to Colonel Waring, telling him 
what had been done during the week in the way of 
keeping the streets clean, — picking up banana skins, 
orange peel, paper, etc. The members also kept their 
eyes open and reported whenever they saw that people 
from certain houses were sweeping rubbish into the 
streets, or breaking any other street regulation. Thou- 
sands of these reports were received, and they are safely 
stowed away in one of the stables of the street-cleaning 
department of the city. 

39 

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40 TOWN AND CITY 

Some of them have mistakes in spelling, but they did 
such useful work that I must quote one or two from 
Colonel Waring's book, which gives the full history of 
these leagues: 

Colonel Waring, 

Dear Sir ; — While walking through Broome street Monday, at 7.30 
P.M. I saw a man throwing a mattress on the street. I came over to 
him and asked him if he had no other place to put it but there. He 
told me that he does not know any other place. So I told him in a 
barrel, and then he picked it up and thanked me for the inflammation 

1 gave him. I also picked up 35 banana skins, 43 water mellon shells, 

2 bottles, three cans, and a mattress from Norfolk street. 

Mei'ropoutan League 

I saw a man eating a banana. He took the skin and threw it on 
the sidewalk. I said to him " please sir will you be so kind and pick it 
up," and he said " all right." Juvenile Progress Club 

To Col. Waring; — Distinguished a bonfire on 5th St. between 
Ave. C and D. Industrial League 

The officers gave heed to these reports, and law- 
breakers were either punished or cautioned. This did 
good promptly, and all sorts of people grew more inter- 
ested and more intelligent on the subject every day. 
Then too the street-cleaning department gave badges of 
honor to those boys and girls who sent in reports which 
showed that they were really working for the interests of 
the city. The badges were made of German silver ; they 



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JUVENILE STREET-CLEANING LEAGUES 41 

were eight sided, engraved and polished, and a certificate 
signed by Colonel Waring himself went with each 
badge. Some hiembers of the league received the rank 
of " helpers " ; others were " foremen " and others " super- 
intendents"; they were always advanced according to 
their diligence. 

Clubs now became so popular in the public schools 
that from one part of the city and another came com- 
mittees of boys with the petition: "Please may we 
have a club?" 

" Why do you want a club ? " Colonel Waring asked 
one day. 

" Oh," they said, " the boys on our block, they knock 
bananas, shells, and all dirty things in the street, and we 
want to reform them." 

" But perhaps the boys are very bad and don't want to 
be reformed," he said. 

" Oh, yes, they do," one of them answered. " We 
asked them, and they all said they did." 

This account is quoted from Colonel Waring's book. 

So the clubs were started one after another in 1896 
and 1897. Public-school boys and girls were proud of 
their clean city, and they resolved to keep it clean. At 
the same time mass meetings were held in different 
places, where city officials talked and where the children 
sang street-cleaning songs. On the next page read one 
of them : it is long, but they sang it with enthusiasm. 



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42 TOWN AND CITY 

NEIGHBOR MINE 

There are barrels in the hallways, 

Neighbor mine ; 
Pray be mindful of them always, 

Neighbor mine. 
If you 're not devoid of feeling, 
Quickly to those barrels stealing, 
Throw in each banana peeling, 
Neighbor mine ! 

Do not drop the fruit you're eaiing. 

Neighbor mine, 
On the sidewalks, sewer, or grating. 

Neighbor mine. 
But lest you and I should quarrel, 
Listen to my little carol ; 
Go and toss it in the barrel. 

Neighbor mine ! 

Look ! whene'er you drop a papei, 

Neighbor mine, 
In the wind it cuts a caper. 

Neighbor mine. 

Down the street it madly courses. 

And should fill you with remorses 

When you see it scare the horses, 

Neighbor mine ! 

Paper-cans were made for papers, 
Neighbor mine ; 

Let 's not have this fact escape us, 
Neighbor mine. 

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JUVENILE STREET-CLEANING LEAGUES 43 

And if you will lend a hand, 
Soon our city dear shall stand 
As the cleanest in the land, 
Neighbor mine. 

In all this the children felt that the city in which they 
lived was their city, and that they wanted to help make 
it the cleanest, most healthful city in the world. The 
clubs all used the same pledge, which I give : 

CIVIC PLEDGE 

We, who soon are to be citizens of New York, the largest city on the 
American continent, desire to have her possess a name which is above 
reproach. And we therefore agree to keep from littering her streets, 
and, as far as possible, to prevent others from doing the same, in order 
that our city may be as clean as she is great and as pure as she is free. 

In 1896 there was a monstrous parade of the leagues. 
The girls rode on trucks with four horses to draw them ; 
the boys marched, wearing their badges and their white 
caps, and grown-up citizens along the route cheered 
them on. 

Perhaps some of those who cheered did not under- 
stand English, for we read that in various parts of the 
city street-cleaning league boys and girls had to trans- 
late the street regulations to their parents ; yet this also 
was most useful service. 

Indeed, the work which those children did on every 
hand was so important and successful, and they did it 



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44 TOWN AND CITY 

with such enthusiasm, that other cities heard about it. 
Men from Boston and Chicago then went to New York 
on purpose to see just what was being done and just 
how it was done, while young citizens in Philadelphia, 
Pittsburg, Utica, Denver, and other places started clubs 
of their own in imitation of New York. 

The real object of each of these juvenile city leagues 
is to make it easy for boys to pull together in ways that 
are useful to themselves and useful to their city. They 
help by sending reports to headquarters, by being careful 
never to toss waste of any sort into the street, and by en- 
couraging others to be as thoughtful as they themselves 
are in everything that pertains to the welfare of the city. 

For two reasons it is best to let the street cleaners 
themselves do the actual work of gathering city rubbish : 

1. Because no one knows what variety of 
disease microbes may be on it. 

2. Because street cleaners have convenient 
tools for the work and do not need to touch 
the rubbish with their hands. 

The truth is, of course, that no boy who has once been 
a member of an active juvenile league can ever be en- 
tirely thoughtless about his duty as a citizen. Indeed 
those who are children to-day will be voting citizens 
soon, and the better acquainted they are with city laws 
and health laws, the better prepared will they be to serve 
the city both as voters and as officers. 



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CHAPTER VII 

GARBAGE, ASHES, AND RUBBISH 

To avoid mistakes from ignorance and carelessness, 
the street-cleaning department of New York City has 
published cards which give definite instructions. The 
copy which I own has a queer pink color, — to keep it 
from being lost among white cards, I suppose, — and 
there are directions on both sides of it. As every word 
is important, both sides are printed on the following 
page. 

When all good citizens have followed the directions 
of their different cards, and when the street sweepers 
have gone through the streets with their two-wheeled 
bag carriers that stretch the bags open to receive the 
dust, with their empty jute bags to hold the sweepings, 
and with their long broom, their short broom, and their 
sprinkler; when finally they have filled these bags with 
the sweepings, tied them up, and put them on the edge 
of the sidewalk to be taken away, then the carts and the 
horses pass slowly down the street and collect the differ- 
ent wastes of the city, — the garbage, rubbish, ashes, and 
street sweepings.^ 

^ In 1906 there were 13 16 drivers of carts that collected this city waste. 

45 



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46 TOWN AND CITY 



DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING, 1 3 Park Row, N, Y. City. 

It is forbidden by City Ordinance to throw 
any scrap or article into the street, or 

PAPER, NEWSPAPERS, Eto. 

ASHES OR DIRT. 

GARBAGE OR OFFAX.. 

BANAIVA SKINS. 

ORANGE PEELi AND THE LiIKE. 

GARBAGE WILL BE COLLECTED BEFORE 12 OXLOCK, NOON, 

Do not sweep the dirt from the sidewalk into the street Sweep the dirt into a pile 
on the sidewalk, pick it up and put it into the ash can. 

To sweep the dirt from the sidewalk into the street after the street has been 
cleaned iS a violation of the law. Keep your sidewalks clean. 

THIS LAW WILL BE STRICTLY ENFOBCEO. 

JOHN McOAW WOODBURY, Commissioner. 



It is on this point that citizens are most likely to be 
ignorant and therefore careless. They do not always 



DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING, 1 3 Park Row, N. Y. City 

KEEP YOUR MATERtALS SEPARATE 

Tke Snaltan C*4« SMtloa 108. nxialrM lioaMholderii and •reapants to proitdft M*«ste neaptaelvs 
for Atbm aad Bvrtm* •■< forbid* mlziag thMo la Ui« aane r«ce»tMl«. 

THIS LAW WILL BE STRICTLY ENFORCED. 
OABBAOB ASHES BtTBBISH 

PUT INTO ■ PUT IKTO _ _ . fVT INTO 

GARBAGE RECEPTACLES ash beoeptacles «^^®i**^* ?^^ h^?« 

Kitchen or Table Waste ABhes £;SS'*kat^e*i2fcarSj£ 

RnnMi Bottles " " Leather & leather Scrap 

Pat Broken Glass iP'****'** /^™* „ ^ « » 

Pnlift Broken Crockery Stf »w and ) Ftm Hou«toldo. 

All Tin Cans Excelsior f f^- 

•Oyster and Clam Shells (All nibwdi roch u deraibert to «hta 

' cotamn m tut be Mcurely bundled awl 

•07it«r and Clam sb«lli will not be lied. Bozee and baneU filled with pa. 

icmoved from flth dealers, but most per. etc , will be romoTed with ood' 

'- be removed at their own ezpenae. tentt. and the bozea or baR<^ wfll not 

be returned.) ~ 

All rabblsk 4eM;rU>ed la thM Mtama muai be kept la door*, aad arJiea rradr f«r rfautral tfe« Uetf 

-P. * a." Bast b« hoar la a eoaa^leaoaa plaee. and Ue drtwr •t tke papw cart will call f<»r laek rabbUh. 

JOHN McGAW WOODBUBY. Comml^sfoner. 



know why the city takes such pains to put different 
articles into different receptacles. Indeed, thousands of 



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GARBAGE, ASHES, AND RUBBISH 



47 



people have no idea what becomes of the waste after the 
carts have moved out of sight around the corner; yet 
its destination explains the need of separating one kind 
from another. 

Before 1896 very little separating was done. All kinds 
of garbage and rubbish went into the same carts, at the 
same time, and were carried to the same dumping boats. 




Unloading Garbage with Pitchforks 

There rag pickers and bone pickers paid the city for the 
privilege of sorting out what they wanted, while the rest 
of the terrible mixture was taken ten miles out to sea 
and thrown overboard. 

Naturally enough, winds and storms drove part of it 
back to shore again. One of the regular complaints at 
the bathing beaches was that boxes and barrels, melon 



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48 TOWN AND CITY 

rinds, cabbage leaves, and truck of every sort annoyed 
the bathers by floating around among them or drifting 
upon the beaches. 

Colonel Waring decided that the whole system of ocean 
dumping was untidy, unsanitary, extravagant, and dis- 
graceful for so large a city as New York. He therefore 
appointed committees to study into the subject of city 
waste. And the work which he did through these 
committees is the basis for what New York City is 
doing to-day. Their first decision was that different 
kinds of refuse need different kinds of treatment. This 
meant that each kind must have its separate receptacle 
at each house, and its separate cart to carry it to its 
special destination. The committees then arranged it all 
so well that these destinations have now become as inter- 
esting as any other sights in New York City. 

Visitors to Riker's Island believe this. They see that 
instead of throwing hundreds of tons of ashes, street 
sweepings, and rubbish into the ocean every year, New 
York is actually making solid ground out of these waste 
things. 

It costs the city about ten thousand dollars an acre 
to make the land ; but when it is made it will be worth 
at least twelve thousand dollars an acre, — which shows 
pretty good management. 

The steps to the land making are these. Ashes from 
the ash cans of the houses and bags of street sweepings 



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GARBAGE, ASHES, AND RUBBISH 



49 



from different parts of the city are gathered up by the 
ash carts. Neither this nor any other kind of cart that 
carries city waste is allowed to trot through the streets. 
For this reason everywhere they move in slow proces- 
sions, first loading up, then traveling to different places 
on the water front, where they dump their contents. 
Sometimes the sweepings are sold to people who buy 




An Ash Cart collecting for Riker's Island 

them to use as fertilizers; otherwise the ashes and 
sweepings go in scows to Riker's Island in East River. 
There they are dumped, and the land grows fast. During 
each month of 1903 over one hundred thousand cubic 
yards of ashes went into the inclosures which are being 
filled to make this island. It cost the city seventeen 
cents a cubic yard to get it there. 



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50 TOWN AND CITY 

The ashes are packed in until the new land stands 
six or eight feet above water at high tide. Then, instead 
of more ashes, sixteen inches of good earth is added, so 
that trees and grass may finally have a chance to grow 
on the manufactured island. 

To start with, Riker's Island was only eighty-seven 
acres in extent. But the plan is to turn it into a three 
hundred and twenty acre island. It will then be twice 
as large as BlackwelFs Island. When the work is done 




Building Riker's Island 

New York City may move her hospitals and her peni- 
tentiaries from BlackwelFs to Riker's Island. Thousands 
of people are hoping that when that time comes Black- 
well's Island will be turned into a beautiful park with 
athletic grounds for the city. 

So much for the good management that turns ashes 
and street sweepings into valuable land. But the fate 
of rubbish bundles is quite as interesting. 

These are gathered by large carts, because the loads 
are lighter and more clumsy. In these loads every sort 



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GARBAGE, ASHES, AND RUBBISH 



51 



of thing is found, from rags and tobacco pipes to worn- 
out mattresses and useless carpets. In truth, many 
people cast aside all sorts of things that can be used by 
other people. There is so much of this done that con- 
tractors are willing to pay the street-cleaning department 




Sorting City Rubbish 

thousands of dollars a year for the privilege of pick- 
ing out what they want from this rubbish before it is 
burned up or thrown away. 

The modern method is for the rubbish bundles to be 
cut open and spread on what is called a moving belt. 



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54 



TOWN AND CITY 



The unloading with shovels and pitchforks is simple 
enough ; then follows the interesting part of the process. 
All that mass of garbage is put into monstrous kettles 
that hold eight tons apiece, and there, with a good deal 
of water, it is steamed steadily for eight hours. Besides 
the fragments and remnants of food, the potato skins 



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L 


■ ii^^«^^ 


jC 1 




'■f^lfc ^ 


V, ' 


J| 




Wa 








it, r.;;i,.| 


i'.#-- 




^ 


i^^^^^^ ^:il11 


Fi 


^ ^ 


^^^L V 4.J: 


m ■■ 


i 


A 


i \ 


v1 


^« 




M 


'v 

j^f 




C 1 








f 




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~ ^ 


^9ir 




^".' 




^ 




jd£ 

4 


-■:j 








I ji^ 


■ V ^ ^ 



Digesters in a Row on Barren Island 

and banana skins for nearly four million people, dead 
horses go into the digester, too ; also dead cats and dogs. 
Any animal that dies on the streets of New York City 
ends by being a part of the eight-ton stew in one of the 
digesters on Barren Island. Altogether there are about 
one hundred of these digesters. 



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GARBAGE, ASHES, AND RUBBISH 



55 



When the steaming is over the cooked garbage is sent 
into presses, where powerful machinery squeezes out the 
water and the fat. Cooling now separates the two, and 
the mass of grayish, brownish fat which rises to the top 
is packed in barrels and sold in Europe and America 
for soap grease, for pomatum, and various other purposes. 




Squeezing Water and Grease from Cooked Garbage 

It is claimed that whatever disease microbes were in 
the garbage to start with have been killed by the heat, 
so there is not the slightest reason why the fat should 
not be used in any of these ways. 

The solid part of the stew is dried, crushed, sifted, and 
sold as a base for fertilizers. 

Of course it is supposed that nothing but garbage 
goes into these city digesters. But, strange to say, when 



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56 TOWN AND CITY 

it comes to the sifting, all sorts of things turn up, — 
silverware, boots and shoes, cans, jewelry, and false 
teeth. Dr. Woodbury says that hairpins are the worst : 
they clog the sifting machine. Yet so many are found 
in it that they are picked out by the ton and sold to the 
wire works to be used again. 

These things get into the digesters because care- 
less people have tossed them into their garbage cans. 
Remember that when things are put into the wrong can 
some one has twice as much trouble at the other end. 
The man who is most loyal to his city shows it as much 
by the manner in which he cares for his rubbish as by 
paying his taxes or by going to the polls and voting for 
upright city officers on election day. 

The street-cleaning department of New York does 
three great things with waste materials: 

1. It turns ashes and street sweepings into 
valuable land. 

2. It turns garbage and dead animals into 
soap fat and fertilizers. 

3. It sells part of the rubbish and burns up 
the rest. At the same time the heat that comes 
from the burning is so great that it is used 
to run the engine which moves the belt. And 
probably, when larger incinerators are built, 
it will be possible to light a part of the city 
with electricity generated by the engines. 



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GARBAGE, ASHES, AND RUBBISH 57 

Most important of all, the department keeps the city 
clean. Thus it heads off disease microbes and preserves 
the health of citizens. This indeed is what every city 
should do for itself. 

New York leads the cities of the United States in the 
way in which it gets rid of refuse. This is so true that 
at the world^s exposition in St. Louis in 1904, one of the 
most interesting exhibits in the New York Building was 
that of the street-cleaning* department of New York City. 
Students of such subjects, from all parts of the world, 
took time to examine it thoroughly, — learning what they 
could for their own use in their own land. 



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CHAPTER VIII 

PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS, AND PUBLIC BATHS 

The Spartans were courageous Grecian people who 
wished to fill their country with vigorous men and 
women. To accomplish this fhey did two things: 

1. They killed deformed children. 

2. They did all they could to keep the 
other children well, giving them plenty of 
outdoor air and exercise. 

Modern cities are like the Spartans in one way, at 
least; for though they do not kill their frail babies on 
purpose, they allow them to live in places which do kill 
them quite as surely as if the deaths were planned for. 

The truth is that neither New York nor any other 
large city has ever been very careful to follow the second 
Spartan rule about caring for the health of the children. 
For years, however, they have tried to help the situation 
by making what they call " lungs," — that is, parks and 
playgrounds for their citizens. There was great discus- 
sion about this in New York City, and in the midst of it 
a committee of men who were looking up the matter 
pretty thoroughly hit on a new strong argument for 
parks. 

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PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS, AND PUBLIC BATHS 59 

They made a map of the city which showed, by green 
squares, where the parks and playgrounds were; then 
they called in police captains from different districts and 
asked them to point out on the map where restless boys 




Mulberry Bend after it became a Park 

gave the most trouble. Queerly enough, in every case 
those policemen put their fingers on the spots where 
there were neither parks, playgrounds, nor trees. The 
committee thereupon put a dash of red on each of these 
troublesome places. 



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6o TOWN AND CITY 

Other policemen said that the boys gave them no 
trouble whatever ; and when they in turn pointed on the 
map, behold their districts were in the region of parks ! 

That was the new argument. The committee saw at 
once that, besides making boys healthier and happier, 
parks did certainly turn them into better citizens. 

The committee next stuck pins into the map to 
show where the schools were, for they wished to know 
where the children were thickest. They then sent this 
strange-looking map to the mayor of New York; and 
with it they sent the copy of a law which the state of 
New York had made for the city. I give it here : 

The people of the state of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as follows : 

Section i. Hereafter no schoolhouses shall be constructed in the 
city of New York without open-air playgrounds attached to be used in 
connection with the same. 

As it happened, wherever the pins were thickest on the 
map, showing the most children, there the red spots 
were thickest too, betraying the boys. No wonder this 
attracted much attention ; for it was easy to see that if 
red spots were thickest where schools were thickest, 
the only sensible plan was to put green spots into those 
very regions and drive red spots out. In other words, the 
law was the most sensible thing in the world, for it pro- 
posed to hitch schoolhouses and playgrounds together for 
the benefit of the children. The city therefore obeyed. 



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PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS, AND PUBLIC BATHS 6 1 

This law was passed in 1895. Between that time and 
1902 New York City put up sixty-nine new public-school 
buildings in Manhattan and The Bronx; and each one 
of the sixty-nine had its own playground. Six of the 
largest and finest of the buildings were put into the most 
crowded parts of the city. In these places land is so valu- 
able that a part of the newest scheme for playgrounds is 
to put them on the roof of the schoolhouses themselves. 
This lifts the children above the dust of the street, giving 
them the purest air to breathe while they frolic and exer- 
cise. The roof playground on Hester Street holds two 
thousand romping children. 

In 1903 New York City looked up the subject and 
found that she had over eleven hundred acres of ground 
in her different parks, — surely quite a large tract of land. 
But, sad to say, Central Park and Riverside Park used 
up all but one hundred and fifty-seven of those acres ; so 
that the rest of the city, where most of the people live, 
had only one hundred and fifty-seven acres to be dis- 
tributed about in small patches here and there. This 
gave but forty acres to the million and a half people who 
lived in the most crowded part of the city. New York 
is therefore laying plans for more parks and school-roof 
playgrounds. 

Other cities everywhere are doing the same thing. 
Between 1898 and 1902 Boston, for example, bought up 
one hundred and fifty of her own worst tenements, also 



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62 



TOWN AND CITY 



eighty stables, pulled them down, carried them away, and 
in many cases put parks in their places. She also has a 
great system of parks, which covers over eight thousand 
acres round about the city. 

Yet quite as important as anything else is the Boston 
system of beach baths which were in use even fifty years 




Ocean Bathing at Wood Island Park Beach 

ago. To-day the North End bathing beach is so abso- 
lutely free to everybody that during the season the bath- 
ing suit itself is lent free of charge. At Boston's other 
city beaches, however, five cents are charged for the use 
of the suit. 

The same facts are true all over the country to-day; 
that is, in certain places the baths are absolutely free, 



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PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS, AND PUBLIC BATHS 



63 



while elsewhere three or five cents are charged for the 
use of towel and soap. 

Going west, we find that Chicago has the honor of being 
the first city in America to give her people free public 
baths all the year round. Other places are, however. 




Saturday Morning at Dover Street Bath House 
Boys waiting their turn 

following in her footsteps ; and to-day the United States 
is the only country in the world where there are cities 
that give baths to their citizens as free as the air they 
breathe. In Europe and in England a fee is always 
charged for the public bath. This is also generally true 
in the United States, although here the number of free 



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64 TOWN AND CITY 

baths increases every year; and they help to raise the 
standard of cleanliness. 

Clearly enough the need is very great in New York 
City, for although the streets are cleaner than they were, 
although the tenements are in better condition, and the 
parks increasing in number, still in 1901 some one dis- 
covered that a particular district in the city had just 
three bath tubs for the use of 1321 families. This 
did not prove that those people did not want to bathe; 
it simply showed they had very little chance in that 
direction. 

With thousands of people going without any real bath 
for months together, the danger of illness is increased 
both to the unwashed persons themselves and to their 
neighbors, for disease microbes thrive best on unclean 
people. 

Since New York believes this fact thoroughly, she is 
providing public baths as fast as possible. Some are in 
use already, others are being built, others yet are planned ; 
and when all are finished they will supply the city with 
thirteen million free baths a year. 

Those who bathe in that city often pay no money 
for the privilege; nevertheless they do supply their 
own soap and towel, and they go to the baths by 
tens of thousands every month. During the first five 
months of 1902 over two hundred thousand people used 
the Rivington Street bath, while in the People's bath, 



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PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS, AND PUBLIC BATHS 65 

where a nickel is charged for the use of soap and towel, 
121,386 of these bits of money poured in during 1901. 




Shower Baths at the Dover Street Bathhouse, Boston 

Along with all these facts it is well to know that 
public city baths have to be arranged with three things 
in mind: 

1. To accommodate as many bathers as 
possible. 

2. To be as inexpensive as possible. 

3. To run no risk of distributing disease 
microbes from one person to another. 



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66 TOWN AND CITY 

Some places supply tubs ; others supply shower baths. 
The objection to the tub is the time and expense of it, 
for not only must it be filled for each person, but it must 
be emptied as well ; it must also be thoroughly scrubbed 
between the baths lest some contagious disease pass from 
one person to his successor in the bath tub. 

The advantages of the shower bath are : 

1. No time is spent in filling tubs, in 
emptying and scrubbing them. 

2. The expense of the shower is less than 
that of the tub bath, because less water is 
used and because the apparatus costs less in 
the first place. 

3. No person runs the slightest risk of 
being touched by water that has touched 
another person. He is therefore safe from 
any contagious disease which another might 
have had who went before him. 

When a crowded city district receives the gift of a 
park, a playground, and a public bath, it has reason to 
expect to turn out healthier, happier, and better citizens 
than it ever did before. This is what Seward Park is 
helping Hester Street to do. The place cost New York 
City a little over eighteen hundred thousand dollars. It 
was opened in 1903, and it was the first park in the 
city to be planned as a playground supplied with gym- 
nasium apparatus. More than that, the apparatus is free 



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PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS, AND PUBLIC BATHS 



67 



for public use; and even Spartan children would have 
enjoyed it. See how much they have : 

Swings, teeter balls, tennis, volley ball, croquet, rings, teeter lad- 
ders, trapeze rings, giant stride, tenpins, Indian clubs, jumping ropes, 
sand boxes, horizontal bars, 
parallel bars, chest bars, hori- 
zontal ladders, inclined lad- 
ders, trolling rings, flying 
rings, bucks, horses, climb- 
ing ropes, climbing poles, 
inclined poles, basket-ball 
courts, running track, also a 
set of standards for pole vault 
and the high jump. 

All this apparatus is 
to be found at Seward 
Park; and there is the beautiful pavilion besides, with 
free shower baths for dusty men and women and for 
tired boys and girls after their gymnastic practice. 




A Corner of Seward Park 
Lined up for a swing 



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CHAPTER IX 

FIRES 

In his book Out of Mulberry Street Mr. Riis describes 
the work of one of the New York " heroes who fight fire." 

There was the clanging of bells, the rush of engines, 
the blazing fire in a great building, and a small boy 




A Fire Engine 



who clung to a ledge so far up that even the extension 
ladders were too short to reach him. But there was yet 
the scaling ladder, — the slender pole with a hook on the 



68 



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FIRES 



69 



end and bars across it for 
steps. A fireman used this. 
One by one he crashed the 
hook through the windows 
above him and climbed the 
pole like a fly against the wall 
until he reached the boy. 

As he took him in his arms 
the fire burst out above them. 
But slowly and surely he crept 
back by the way he had come. 
And when they reached the 
ground together the crowd 
knew that the fireman was a 
hero. A great shout went up. 
Women cried, while strong 
men acted as if they had lost 
their wits. They laughed; they 
shook hands; they clapped 
each other on the back. And 
no wonder, for they had seen 
a man risk his own life to 
save the life of another. 

That is not a rare case. 
Deeds like that are done every 
year by brave firemen, though the man who does it is 
apt to be the one who says the least about it. 




The Scaling Ladder 

The hook at the top will be turned 
to catch over the window sill 
above it 



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TOWN AND CITY 



A man does not save another by accident. He has to 
know how. He strives for it ; he.drills for it. But before 
the striving and the drilling there must come a clear 
head and steady nerves, for the drill tests both of these. 

When he drills a 
man must learn to 
jump from a third-story 
window into a fire net 
without a moment's 
hesitation ; he must be 
strong enough and 
skillful enough to use 
the slender scaling lad- 
der; he must learn to 
pull a fellow fireman 
through a fourth or 
fifth-story window and 
carry him safely to the 
ground. He must also 
be able to relax his 
muscles; he must act 
let another man carry him 
if he were the one being 




A Water Tower 
It pours a stream of water into a high building 



as if he had fainted and 

down the dizzy ladder as it ne were 

rescued. He must learn how to stand in any perilous 

place without being dizzy ; he must be ready to do any 

dangerous thing without being afraid. Truly a fireman 

needs to be as brave as he is strong. 



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FIRES 71 

If he finds that he loses his head, or is dizzy or afraid; 
if he cannot cHmb and jump fearlessly, and crawl through 
suffocating smoke, he may be useful somewhere else in 
the world, but he cannot be a successful fireman. In 
1903 there were over seven thousand men in the service 
in Greater New York, and the city paid about five 
million dollars for their services that year. 

No doubt their hardest work is in the tallest tenement 
houses, because the greatest danger and the greatest 
suffering are just there. At the same time almost half the 
fires of New York City are in those very buildings. New 
York learned this when her tenement-house commission 
studied up the subject of air shafts and fires. 

It seems that ever since air shafts were first put into 
buildings firemen have said that they act like huge 
chimneys, drawing the fire up and flashing it into every 
window on the way. This is evidently true, for the same 
commission investigated the course of three hundred and 
twenty-nine great tenement fires, and found that fully 
one quarter of them rushed through the buildings by the 
air-shaft road ; that one fifth traveled through halls and 
stairways, while another quarter burned their way through 
floors and partitions. They accordingly decided that : 
I. Air shafts must not be allowed in new- 
law tenement houses. 

2.: Public halls and stairways must be 
made fireproof. 



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72 TOWN AND CITY 

Two fires during the same day, one in fireproof halls, 
the other in non-fireproof halls, showed what the differ- 
ence is when a fire once breaks out. 

The non-fireproof halls were in Jackson Street. There 
the fire raced through them to the halls above ; it spread 
along the corridors, reached almost every room in the 
building, and traveled so fast in every direction that 
before the occupants could all escape eleven were killed 
and six more injured. 

The other fire was in Rutgers Street. It could spread 
neither far nor fast because both halls and stairways were 
made of slate and iron, — that is, they were fireproof. Of 
course there was some woodwork about them, and it was 
burned ; but it made no terrible blaze ; and when the fire 
reached the upper stories it found doors that separated 
one hall from another, while the flames were only hot 
enough to scorch the doors on the side towards the fire. 

Whether the halls are fireproof or not, however. New 
York demands fire escapes on every tall building. They 
are as necessary for the entrance of a fireman who is to 
save a child as for the escape of a child who can save 
himself. The law requires them on both the front and 
the rear of each tenement. 

When they are omitted sad results sometimes follow. 
This was the case in January, 1900. A fire broke out 
on First Avenue; and when the firemen arrived the 
stairs were in flames, while the wind blew other flames 



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FIRES 



73 



around the rear fire escapes. 
There were no fire escapes in 
front, so that people above 
the second story could not 
leave. The firemen worked 
tremendously for five and a 
half hours ; they used exten- 
sion ladders, scaling ladders, 
and jumping nets, and suc- 
ceeded in saving everybody 
except Loretto Leonard. He 
was six years old and was 
suffocated on the fifth floor 
before they could get him 
down. 

In cases like that all de- 
pends on the firemen, and 
they cannot always save 
every one. 

Yet even when there are 
escapes enough, the way in 
which they are built makes 
all the difference in the world 
in their usefulness. Vertical 
ladders are so dangerous that 
women and children hardly 
dare to climb down on them 




The Right Kind of Fire Escape 

. This means that unless 



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74 



TOWN AND CITY 



the firemen carry such people down one by one they are 
not saved at all. 

Even with the best of fire escapes, however, there 
may be awful tragedy. This happens when barrels, 
boxes, plants, rags, and rubbish are loaded on the fire 
escapes and balconies, as occurred in New York City in 
March, 1905. Over forty citizens were injured in that 




An Encumbered Fire Escape 

fire, and nineteen were burned to death. Some were on 
the fire escapes ; they had tried to climb down, but rub- 
bish of every sort had caught them there and hindered 
them until even the firemen could not save them. 

There are strict laws against encumbering the fire 
escapes, and the fine for breaking the law is ten dollars. 

If you are ever caught in a burning building where 
there is no school fire drill to obey, do as the fireman 



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FIRES 75 

does in one way at least; that is, keep a clear head, 
think fast, and end by doing sensible and not foolish 
things. 

When you are sure there is a fire, shout aloud to notify 
others. Then run down the stairway if it is not on fire. 
If it is on fire, go out at once to the fire escape ; keep a 
steady head and climb down carefully step by step. If 
there is no fire escape, stand up in a window and look 
down. The firemen will see you and they will hold out 
a jumping net. When they do this, do not hesitate an 
instant ; look up into the air now and not down ; let all 
your muscles be relaxed so that you will not strike with 
an extra bound when you reach the net, and as you are 
looking up step off into the air. In two seconds you 
will be safe in the net. 

Quickness and a clear head have saved the lives of 
scores of people. They are especially useful when a fire 
breaks out in a school building. 

In Detroit, Michigan, on the 15th of March, 1905, 
there was such a fire. Six hundred children were in the 
building at the time. The fire started in a closet full of 
flags and ended by burning up those flags. But as soon 
as the gongs were sounded as a signal for fire drill the 
children fell into line and marched out in perfect order. 
Some of the little girls cried afterwards, when the fire- 
men came and put out the fire, but they marched like 
heroes as long as they were in danger. 



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76 



TOWN AND CITY 



In New York City, February, 1905, the boys in a 
private asylum on One Hundred and Seventy-sixth 
Street were even more successful, for they not only 
marched out of the building but they formed a fire 
brigade. They laid two lines of hose to the hydrant, 
turned the water on the blazing timbers, and worked so 
well under the man who guided them that when the 
regular firemen came there was nothing for them to do. 
The fire was so nearly out that the chief fireman simply 
congratulated the boys and their leader and went away. 

I might go on mentioning case after case of the same 
kind, for thousands of other American schools are able to 
march to safety by the fire drill. It is even more impor- 
tant, however, that each separate child should learn to 
be careful about starting fires by accident. 



Causes of Fires in New York City during June, 1900 



II 
1 1 

6 

I 
97 



Gas explosion . . . 
Bedding and sofa fires 
Cellar rubbish igniting 
Firecrackers . . . 
Spark from locomotive 
Not known .... 
Clothing and furniture too near 

stoves 22 

235 

Read the preceding list of two hundred and thirty-five 
fires and pick out those that came from carelessness. 
See how few others there are. The list is quoted from 
The Tenement House Problem, 



Careless use of matches . . 


. 32 


Upsetting kerosene lamp . 

Gas jet 

Fat boiling 

Foul chimney . . . . . 
Electric wire 


4 

5 

3 

10 

I 


Incendiary 

Carelessness with candle 


I 
18 



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FIRES 



n 



To help save our neighbors and ourselves from fire, 
let us never run risks through carelessness with matches, 
with candles, with firecrackers, or with anything else. 




Fire Escape Balcony and Stairs, Encumbered 

Let us also help our city by noticing whether the fire 
escapes are kept clear. If you find one that is not clear, 
you might drop a postal to the fire department. You do 
not even need to sign your name ; simply say : 

The fire escape at is encumbered. , ,, ^ 

A Young Citizen. 

Remember that you have the right to help make your 
city safe and beautiful. 



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CHAPTER X 

GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL 

Not only are cities growing more economical in sav- 
ing what they once wasted and making money where 
they once lost it, but the same rules are controlling 
business in every part of the country. A certain change 
in the way alcohol is used shows this. 

Formerly railroad men in America were supposed to 
use alcohol as a matter of course. Saloons were thick 
near every station, and trainmen visited them whenever 
they pleased. At that time those who did the drinking 
were not the scTrt of railroad men we see to-day. On the 
contrary, in certain directions, no one expected much 
of them. They worked hard, drank often, had no high 
respect for themselves, and were not greatly respected by 
others. 

To-day, however, the railroad employee is almost 
always a self-respecting, well-clad, strong, and reliable 
man. His officers are proud of him, while he is proud 
of his occupation. The change has not come suddenly, 
but step by step, just as the business itself has grown. 
Yet the contrast between the past and the present is 
very striking. 

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GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL 79 

Eighty years ago locomotives weighed two and one 
half tons in the United States. Cars were small and 
few. Passengers traveled by hundreds instead of by 
thousands, and trains moved at the rate of thirty miles 
an hour when they went their fastest. But now (in 1906), 
some locomotives weigh almost two hundred tons. They 
can travel seventy-five miles an hour, and they carry mil- 
lions of passengers every year. Here are a few official 
figures for 1902. Notice the size, but do not try to 
remember them. 

Miles of track 202,492 

Number of locomotives . , 50,000 

, Number of cars 1,640,000 

Number of passengers carried 649,878,505 

Amount of freight (in tons) . 1,200,000,000 

Employees 1,189,315 

Capitalinvolved $12,134,182,964 

These figures show that the railway tracks of the 
United States are long enough to reach to the moon 
and to go around the earth besides. They show that 
there is more money invested in the railway business 
than in any other business in the country. They show 
that over one million people take charge of the lives of 
six hundred million other people who travel by rail. 
And perhaps they show, most of all, that the success of 
the whole enormous business depends on faithful work 
done by faithful men. 



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8o TOWN AND CITY 

When huge trains are traveling at the rate of a mile a 
minute, and when through some carelessness there is 
an open switch or a wrong light and a frightful collision, 
not only are innocent human beings crushed, burned, 
and killed, but the railroad companies have enormous 
bills to pay. They must repair their locomotives, rebuild 
their cars, relay the twisted track. More than that, they 
must pay damages to wounded men and women, and 
pay thousands of dollars to the heirs of those who have 
been killed. 

All this happened to the Lake Shore Railroad Com- 
pany after an accident in June, 1905. The train was mov- 
ing its fastest when the crash came. Nineteen men died, 
others were wounded, and the cars and locomotives were 
wrecked. That one accident is supposed to have cost the 
company not less than five hundred thousand dollars. 

When wrecks and death mean such loss as that, any 
good business firm does all it can to prevent them. So 
in the railroad business especially every car, engine, and 
boiler must be well made ; every track must be well laid ; 
every switch must be closed when the right moment 
comes. Every flagman, brakeman, switchman, track 
walker, conductor, and engineer must be intelligent, 
absolutely reliable, and brave. Each must be ready to 
act on the instant in case of accident; yet each must 
be so careful and clear-headed that no act of his will 
ever bring about an accident. 



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GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL 8 1 

Probably no business company in the world has 
studied men more carefully than railroad companies. 
They need to know whom they can trust, and how to 
get hold of worthy men; and they have had no way 
to learn except by experience. 

At first very little was said about alcohol, for in early 
days almost everybody used it. But when it was noticed 
that accidents came oftenest from the carelessness of 
those who drank alcohol, and when the company realized 
that the more their men drank the more money they 
themselves lost, they saw it was poor business. They 
then decided that no one should work for them who 
ever allowed himself to get drunk. This was the first 
step, and it was an improvement. 

Nevertheless they still kept an eye on the accident 
record; and they saw that, after all, the really reliable 
men were those who not only were never drunk but 
who never drank while on duty. The company there- 
fore took another step, and made it a law that no man 
should drink while he was at his work. This kept 
thousands of men steadier then they had ever been 
before. Travelers were safer, too, but even yet it was 
plain that the most reliable men of all were those who 
never touched alcohol, either on duty or off duty. 
Indeed, such men were now in great demand every year. 
They were surest to receive good places, and surest to 
keep them. 



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8,2 TOWN AND CITY 

Both the character and the appearance of the railroad 
man changed fast after that. He stopped acting and 
dressing as if he belonged to the saloon. Instead, he 
finally looked and acted as if he belonged to the splen- 
did railroad system of the country. These men became 
self-respecting, and they were greatly respected. 

Having gone as far as that in temperance work, the 
railroad companies now took the most important step of 
all. Several united in what is called the American Rail- 
road Association. This covers something like one hun- 
dred and sixty thousand miles of track, with cars, engines, 
passengers and trainmen to match. 

In 1899 the Association adopted the following strict 
rule : " The use of intoxicants by employees while on duty 
is prohibited. Their habitual use or frequenting of places 
where they are sold is sufficient cause for dismissal." 

That law covers the drinking habits of hundreds of 
thousands of men, and it is strictly enforced. Not only 
so, but other railroad companies are even more strict. 

The Central Vermont Railway says, "We require 
from employees engaged in train service total abstinence 
at all times, whether on or off duty." The Toronto, 
Hamilton, and Buffalo Railroad Company's rule is, 
" The use of intoxicating liquors is forbidden under any 
circumstances ; " and men who want to. work on the 
International and Great Northern Railroad have to sign 
the following pledge : 



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GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL 83 

" If this application is accepted, I agree to observe all 
rules and regulations of this company; to abstain from 
the use of intoxicating liquors, not to visit saloons, 
places of low resort, or where liquors are sold, etc." 

With railroad after railroad doing the same thing, the 
end of it all is that, in the United States in 1906, about 
a million railroad men have to be total abstainers from all 
alcoholic drinks, or run the risk of losing their positions. 
This makes the railroads of the country the largest, the 
strongest, and the strictest temperance society in the 
world. It is powerful because it turns a man out of 
business if he breaks his pledge. 

The curious part of this society is that it does not 
work for temperance because it is anxious about the 
health or the happiness of the men themselves, but 
simply because it is determined to do good business, to 
save waste by accident, and to make as much money as 
possible. 



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CHAPTER XI 

GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL {continued) 

Life-insurance companies are money-making affairs, 
too, and some of them are doing as good temperance 
work as the railroads. 

In the first place their arrangement with people is 
this : When a man gets his life insured he promises to 
pay the firm a definite small sum of money every year 
as long as he lives, and in return the firm promises to 
pay his heirs a definite large sum when he dies. Plainly 
enough, the longer the man lives and pays the money 
the better the company likes it ; while the man himself 
is glad to do the living even if he has to do the paying. 
So it turns out that long life satisfies both parties. 

As for what alcohol has to do about it, the proof has 
come in a natural way. For generations people have 
been talking about the effects of alcohol on health. 
Some thought it lengthened life; others thought it 
shortened life; but there were no figures to prove the 
case either way until after 1840. At that time a new 
sort of insurance society was started in Great Britain 
with a monstrous name, — The United Kingdom Total 

Abstinence Life Association, for the Mutual Assurance 

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GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL 85 

of the Lives of Total Abstainers Only. Later the name 
was changed somewhat, and other people were allowed 
to be insured in the same company. 

Since then the two parts of the society, — one for 
abstainers, the other for non-abstainers — have gone on 
side by side ; but all the records of the lives and all the 
records of money paid and received have been kept 
separate. At the same time the men in each set have 
had the same sort of medical examination before they 
were accepted, and they have come from the same class 
of English people. In fact, in everything except alcohol 
drinking they have been alike. 

Now come the interesting facts. The records cover 
sixty-one years. They run from 1840 to 1901 ; and the 
reports which Mr. Moore made for the society in 1903 
are filled with long tables of figures. Still the case can 
be given here in a nutshell. 

It seems that all insurance societies use certain sets of 
figures to show how long people are likely to live after 
any definite age. For example : 

At 20 a healthy man may expect to live 42 years. 

(( 40 '* *' ** *' ^^ ^* ^* 28 '^ 

These tables cover all ages, and they were made up 
before any one thought that taking alcohol or going 
without it could make any difference in the length of 
time a man might live. 



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86 TOWN AND CITY 

For this very reason, perhaps, they are specially valu- 
able now, for they are the standard ; and by comparing the 
record of a man's life with the standard we know whether 
he has lived longer than he was expected to live or 
whether he has died sooner than he was expected to die. 

This brings us back to the first temperance society 
with the long name. By crowding Mr. Moore's tables 
into the smallest possible nutshell, we find that during 
those sixty-one years, out of every hundred non-abstainers 
four more died than were expected to die; while out 
of every hundred abstainers twenty-five more lived than 
were expected to live. Or, to make the figures of the 
society plainer yet : 

Deaths during Sixty-one Years 

Among abstainers 1775 fewer than expected. 

Among non-abstainers 36 more than expected. 

Mr. Nelson, another Englishman who is in the life- 
insurance business, has separated the statistics of mod- 
erate drinkers from those of total abstainers and has 
found out what the different standards of life expectation 
are for the two sets of people. This is quite a different 
matter from the standard which was made from the sta- 
tistics of drinkers and abstainers mixed together. 

The first table shows how many moderate drinkers 
die between certain ages as compared with the total 
abstainers who die between the same ages: 



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GOOD BUSINESS AND ALCOHOL 87 



Age 


Moderate 
Drinkers 


Total 
Abstainers 


Between 15 and 20 


1 8 die for every 


10 


" 20 « 30 


^i it << « 


10 


** 30 " 40 


40 " " ♦* 


10 



If a man wishes to know just how old he has a right 
to expect to live to be, he may consult these other figures 
which Mr. Nelson gives. Such a man can tell his pros- 
pects by the column of figures to which he happens to 

Age Drinkers Abstainers 

At 20 expect to live to be 35 64 

At 30 " " " " " 43J 66^ 

At 40 " " " '* " 5ii 68 

When a moderate drinker learns these facts and does 
not decide to be a total abstainer, it is clear that he is 
perfectly willing to rob himself of his own life. 

These different facts have not only set people to think- 
ing, but they have also induced other insurance societies 
to examine their records. By doing this they find that 
in every case where they have recorded abstainers and 
non-abstainers separately the result tells the same story 
about abstention and long life. The figures are, indeed, 
so convincing that, in certain insurance societies, the man 
who is a total abstainer does not have to pay so high a 
rate as the man who sometimes uses alcohol. 

After all, however, boys are far more apt to be inter- 
ested in the business of athletics than in life-insurance 



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88 TOWN AND CITY 

societies; and without being told anything about it, 
they know that in these days almost every coach who 
trains college men for football, baseball, or athletic sports 
of any kind, positively forbids alcohol. Each one says 
he is training his men to win and that he will not risk 
alcohol. 

In 1 90 1 the captain of the Princeton football team 
wrote : " Beer and other alcoholic liquors are never used. 
I think a team i§ better off without them." This word 
comes from Cornell : " I have found that young men are 
much better off and do better work without than with 
them. They are therefore absolutely prohibited." Other 
universities are just as firm. 

Whichever way we turn, therefore, we find that the 
habit of never touching alcohol is like a strong engine 
pulling a man along the road to success. 



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CHAPTER XII 

WATER SUPPLY FOR NEW YORK AND WATER WASTE 

IN CITIES 

For a city like New York, which is growing fast, and 
using more water with each step of growth, one of the 
most important questions is, how to get enough of it 
to escape a water famine during dry weather. 

One hundred years ago the city had sixty thousand 
inhabitants; yet even then they were in need of more 
water. To get it they dug a well twenty-five feet across 
and thirty feet deep, sending the water to the people in 
pipes. Seven years later the city was twice as large. 
They now dug another well, sixteen feet across and one 
hundred and twenty-two feet deep. After that, well fol- 
lowed well, until 1834, when the demand had so far 
exceeded the supply that men were bringing water in 
barrels and in hogsheads from springs in the country. 
They sold six hundred hogsheads a day at a dollar 
and a quarter apiece. 

But no city can keep on growing and depend on that 

kind of water supply. The people therefore made plans. 

They studied the creeks, the springs, and the rivers for 

miles around, and ended by deciding to use Croton River, 

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90 TOWN AND CITY 

forty miles away. The water was pure and there was 
enough of it ; the only objection was the distance from 
town. But a dam was built across the river; and with 
stone, brick, and cement an aqueduct was made, eight 
and a half feet in diameter and forty miles long. It 
passed through sixteen tunnels and finally crossed a 
bridge into New York City. 

If you ever visit High Bridge, try to remember that 
it is over a quarter of a mile long, that it is one hundred 
and sixteen feet high, and that it carries eighty million 
gallons of water into New York every day. It has been 
doing this ever since 1842. At that time it was the 
wonder of the year; but by 1890 the city needed so 
much more water that another aqueduct had already 
been built and was ready for use. 

New York has built reservoir after reservoir to hold 
the rain that falls anywhere in that region; and draws 
from these in dry weather. In 1905 another huge Croton 
dam was ready to store up more water than New York 
had ever before collected. Near the end of its constrilc- 
tion, the men worked hard and fast and over time. The 
reason was that every day the city was using fifty million 
gallons more water than could be obtained during a 
dry season. This meant that if there had been several 
months without rain before the dam was ready to use. 
New York would have suffered from that awful thing, 
a water famine. 



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WATER SUPPLY AND WATER WASTE 



91 



This almost happened in igcx); for during that year 
for two hundred and fifty-five days more water was 
used than fell in rain. In fact, there was finally only 
enough left in the reservoirs to supply the city five days 
longer. If a great fire had broken out just then, I suppose 




Croton Dam before it was Finished 
Here thirty billion gallons of water are kept in storage for New Yorkers 

the city would hardly have dared to spare enough water 
to put it out. 

Fortunately, however, rain came instead of fire; and 
it poured so steadily for twenty-four hours that every 
reservoir and bed was full and running over. Of course 
this narrow escape showed the city that it must have 



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92 TOWN AND CITY 

more water as soon as possible; and that explains the 
rush the builders were in as they were finishing the 
new dam. 

It was thirteen years building; and it is so much longer 
and broader and higher than the old dam that the water 
it holds back has flooded out of sight that other one 
three miles farther up the valley. All that a visitor sees 
now is the wide, beautiful, artificial lake that stretches 
back into the narrow valleys. It stores up water enough 
to supply New York City for a dry season of one hun- 
dred days. 

The new aqueduct that carries this water to the city 
is fourteen feet high. 

Read the following figures, but do not try to remember 
them. In 1904 Greater New York used three hundred 
and seventy-five million gallons of water each day. Those 
who know best say that even now the city ought to have 
enough to allow at least five hundred million gallons to 
be used every twenty-four hours. Indeed, that is what 
is now being planned. 

Already engineers, chemists, and bacteriologists have 
been sent into all parts of the state to examine the water 
and its availability. They have visited the Hudson 
River to its smallest branches ; they have studied all the 
streams of the Adirondack and Catskill mountains. 

In fact, they have examined every stream, mountain, and 
valley in the state ; and the report of the work is printed 



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WATER SUPPLY AND WATER WASTE 93 

in a book of nine hundred and eighty pages, with maps to 
illustrate it from beginning to end. This tells just where 
the best water can be found ; how many dams must be 
built in this place or that to make the lake that would be 
needed as a reservoir; how many people and villages 
would have to be bought out and moved to make 
room for such a lake ; how long and how large the aque- 
ducts would have to be to carry the water to the city; 
and in every case they tell, as nearly as they can, what 
the whole will cost. All that the city has to do, then, 
is to decide where to go for additional water, choose 
engineers and workmen, set them to work, and pay 
the bills. 

But how does New York, or any other city,, know how 
much water will be used each year? She knows from 
her own experience and from the experience of other 
cities. After all, however, there is a great difference in 
the quantity of water which different cities use and 
waste. 

Massachusetts has learned this from the reports of the 
Metropolitan Water District. There are eighteen towns 
and cities in the district, and the water for each goes 
through meters and is measured on its way to town. The 
last column of the table given on the next page shows that 
there is no regular rule about the quantity taken by each 
town ; and that they allowed all the way from forty-four 
to one hundred and thirty gallons a day for each person. 



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94 



TOWN AND CITY 



Daily Average (Twenty-four Hours) of Consumption from the 
Metropolitan Works, June 28, 1903, to January 2, 1904. 

Average Daily per 
Capita (by Gallons) 

... 84 

47 

602,175 ^30 

94 

81 

68 

47 

78 

100 

44 

62 

89 

60 

82 

73 

83 

49 

........ 89 



City or Town 








Population 


Arlington .... 9,845 


Belmont 








4,875 


Boston . 








. 602,175 


Chelsea 








36,125 


Everett . 








28,450 


Lexington 








3,600 


Maiden 








37,315 


Medford 








21,035 


Melrose 








14,015 


Milton . 








7,475 


Nahant 








2,555 


Quincy . 








• 27,135 


Revere . 








13,165 


Somerville 






68,310 


Stoneham . 






6,400 


Swampscott 






6,380 


Watertown 






. 10,950 


Winthrop 








7,485 



Now those who were studying the subject in 1903 
knew that even extravagant cities do not need to allow 
more than sixty gallons a day for each citizen. They 
also knew that the Metropolitan Water Works was 
supplying water at the rate of one hundred and twenty 
gallons a day for every man, woman, and child in the 
district. The question was where it all went ; and on 
that hinged the next question, — how to save it. 



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WATER SUPPLY AND WATER WASTE 95 

To find out, they kept two separate records: one 
showed how much water was used during the whole 
twenty-four hours; the other showed how much was 
used between one and four o'clock every morning. They 
knew that most people are asleep at that time, and that 
the water that was measured then was probably leaking 
and wasting. The tests were kept up for six months, 
and by the end of that time it was very plain that 
quantities of water were streaming away every night 
while the town was asleep. It was wasting so quietly out 
of sight that no one either heard or saw it. 

But to be more exact about it, the men now chose the 
town of Milton for special investigation. This town has 
meters in every house, so that the committee knew not 
only how much water came to town, but exactly how 
much was used in the private houses and public houses, 
for street sprinkling and by the fire department. By 
comparing what was actually used with what went to 
town, they soon saw that there was an enormous waste. 
Indeed, it ended by their deciding that the huge street 
water pipes were leaking at the rate of three thousand 
gallons a day for every mile of street in Milton. Then 
they found the leaks, mended them at once, and saved 
quantities of water. 

The water board of a town is supposed to keep the 
street pipes mended; but you and I, our fathers and 
our mothers are to blame if water goes to waste in our 



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96 TOWN AND CITY 

homes ; for there are but two ways for it to escape, and 
we can discover them both : 

1. Through broken pipes and fixtures that 
ought to be mended. 

2. Through open fixtures that ought to be 
shut. 

Although we may not always see the water leaking, 
we may often hear it wasting through a hidden valve 
that leaks in the bath room. The sound is a warning, 
and the valve should be mended. 

It is a wonder how much can be wasted through a 
very small hole. A leak in a city pipe so small that a 
pin can stop it will let out water enough in twenty-four 
hours to give a family of five people a day's supply ; and 
a hole that can be stopped by a lead pencil will waste 
enough in a day to give three hundred and sixty people 
all they need for twenty-four hours. 

One of the surprising things that those Massachusetts 
water records show is that cities use more water in the 
coldest winter than in the hottest summer. The reason 
is that many people in winter keep a tiny stream of 
water running from their fixtures to keep the pipes from 
freezing* Thousands of these streams all over the city 
are enough to supply quite a river. .^ 

In January, 1904, there were two exceedingly cold days ; 
and on each of those days the cities of the water district 
used sixty million more gallons of water than on any 



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WATER SUPPLY AND WATER WASTE 97 

day in August of the same year. Notice this fact, how- 
ever; cities that used the most water had no meters, 
while those that used the least had meters. 

Maiden and Chelsea have about the same population; 
but one has meters, the other has not. See the records 
side by side : 



J 


^ Gallons per Capita 


Gallons per Capita 




August 4, 1904 


Jan. 5, 1905 


Maiden (meter) 


41 


57 


Chelsea (no meter) 


88 


211 



In the list of eighteen cities for 1903 there are two 
interesting groups. The population of each is about sixty 
thousand, and each really needs about as much water as 
the other ; yet here they stand with their different records. 
In each group the figures show the average number of 
gallons for each person each day : 

First Group Second Group 

Belmont 47 Chelsea 94 

Maiden 47 Medford 78 

Milton 44 Melrose 100 

Watertown 47 Winthrop 99 

The first group uses meters, the second does not; 
and the lesson from those two rows of figures is that 
when water is measured and paid for by measure less is 
wasted. This- is so true that a city always saves money 
by putting meters into its houses. 

After that the occupants keep the fixtures shut ; they 
mend leaking pipes; they compel landlords to protect 



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98 TOWN AND CUV 

pipes so well that they will not need to keep the water 
running to prevent freezing in winter. They do all this 
to save their pocketbooks, for no one cares to pay for 
what he does not use. Any broken pipe or open faucet 
that lets out water when it is not needed wastes it. Yet 
no water is wasted that is used for cooking, for drinking, 
or for keeping people and houses clean. In these ways 
we need to be generous with the water we use. 

The one important argument against putting water 
meters into private homes is that when water is meas- 
ured and payed for according to the amount used, 
economical families may be tempted to use less than 
they actually need; and when economy takes a form 
which sacrifices cleanliness, health itself is liable to 
suffer. For this reason, if a city can afford the expense 
of such waste as is sure to result when water is not 
metered, it will at least have the satisfaction of knowing 
that no member of its community is economizing on that 
which is so essential to cleanliness and to health as is the 
water supply of the home. 

When we say that a city supplies water at the rate of 
so much per capita, we mean that each person's share is 
that amount. This includes all that is used in the city 
in every possible way and all that is wasted. 



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CHAPTER XIII 

DRINKING WATER 



Two thousand years ago the Romans seemed to know 
that pure drinking water is more necessary for the 
health of a city than large houses, good laws, or clean 
streets. They learned this from experience, for at that 




The Claudian Aqueduct built over 1800 Years Ago 
It carried pure water to Rome from the Latin hills 

time no one had ever dreamed of such things as disease 
microbes. 

The Romans simply noticed that when they were 
crowded together in cities, and when they drank water 
from wells or brooks near which people lived, they were 



99 



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ICX) 



TOWN AND CITY 



apt to suffer from certain diseases. They were so sure 
of this that, although the river Tiber ran through the 
very heart of Rome, they did not use it for drinking. 
Instead, they built enormous aqueducts that rested on 
arches and stretched across the country for scores of 
miles, carrying delicious mountain water to the city. 




A Chinese River for Drinking Water 

China manages in a different way. She takes what- 
ever water is nearest at hand and uses it. 

I am thinking just now of Tientsin on the Peiho 
River. The city is large and crowded with people. The 
streets are narrow and dirty, but they are washed some- 
times when waste water and even sewage runs through 
them and sweeps the refuse into the river. On this 



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DRINKING WATER . .JpJ. 

same river thousands of Chinese junks lie anchored, or 
move from place to place with the families that live in 
them from. one year's end to another; and everything 
that is disagreeable from all these boats and all these 
people is tossed overboard into the river. 

Worse than that, on the banks of the Peiho, for hun- 
dreds of miles through the flat country, there are scores 
of other cities and villages, and each one throws all its 
refuse into the river to be carried to the sea. The water 
is yellow-brown at last, and wretched stuff for drinking. 
Yet hundreds of thousands of people in Tientsin, and in 
all the other crowded places on that crowded river bank, 
drink it every day of their lives. 

Rome would not have dared to touch it. Still China 
is an old country too, and she has learned from experience 
just as Rome did, only she has learned two lessons 
instead of one : 

1. Impure water is dangerous, — which 
the Romans knew. 

2. Any human being can make the most 
impure water safe for drinking by boiling 
it for a few minutes. 

They have learned these lessons so well in China 
that in every part of the country the people boil the 
water before they drink it. The rich and the poor, the 
wise and the foolish, all treat it in the same way. Most 
of them have a few tea leaves in the water, and they call 



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TOWN AND CITY 



their drink tea; but it often seems as if the tea were 
only an excuse for the boiling. After all, however, I 
doubt very much whether many of the people know why 
boiling makes it safe. 

We ourselves learned in Good Health that boiling 
kills microbes, and that a dead microbe is no more dan- 
gerous than a dead wolf. We also know that it is quite 
as important to kill disease microbes that may be in our 
drinking water as to kill wild animals that may be ready 
to seize us.. 

Cities in America and England have been slow in 
learning either the Roman or the Chinese lessons, as the 
following London record of epidemics shows : 



idemic of 


Duration 


Deaths from Cholera 


1847 . . 


. . 23 weeks . 


• . . 13,565 


1854 . . 


. . 23 " . 


. . . 10,684 


1865 . . 


. . 23 " . 


. . . 5,548 



The special point to notice about these epidemics is 
that they all came from impure drinking water. Evi- 
dently the Englishman was drinking what the Chinese 
would have boiled and what the Romans would not 
have touched. In 1854, when people began to die by 
hundreds and by thousands, the doctors hunted for 
the reason and found that the center of the whole trouble 
seemed to be near Broad Street well. They noticed that 
those who used that water were far more apt to die of 
cholera than anybody else. 



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DRINKING WATER 103 

Yet scores of men liked the water so much better than 
any other that they came from blocks around to drink 
it. They even brought pails and pitchers to carry it 
away in, for they said it was cool and clear and had a 
delicious taste ; but at last so many were dying that the 
city officers warned the people not to use it. In spite of 
that fact, however, many kept up the practice until some 
one was sensible enough to take off the handle of the 
pump, which, of course, saved even the weak and foolish 
from being tempted. 

Nobody knew why the water did such harm until one 
persistent man examined the sides of the well, and 
behold! there was the trouble. The bricks were so 
loose and the mortar between the stones was so useless 
that anything liquid could leak in. Later he found an 
old cesspool in a house near by, — indeed near enough 
to explain everything. Some one with cholera had 
evidently been in that house, and cholera germs had 
not only reached the cesspool but by leaking through 
had also reached the well and loaded the drinking water 
with disease microbes. 

In the London epidemic of 1866 almost four thousand 
of those who died belonged to the same East District. 
When it appeared that all the water for this district 
came from the same source, the case looked suspicious 
and the city officers ordered a warning notice to be put 
up. Read it on the next page. 



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I04 TOWN AND CITY 



CHOLERA NOTICE 



The inhabitants of the district in which Cholera is prevailing are 
earnestly advised not to drink any water which has not previously 
been boiled. 

After that those who followed the warning were safe. 
This example simply shows the serious side of the city- 
water trouble. People drink what they find, whether 
they draw it from well or faucet, for most of them 
know almost nothing about the difference between pure 
and impure water ; and, in any case, the whole responsi- 
bility for the water supply seems to rest on the city 
government. 

Still all citizens should learn a few facts by heart and 
practice accordingly. They should bear in mind the 
circle of the water history, — how it evaporates from 
ocean, lake, and river ; and how it forms clouds, turns to 
rain, and falls to earth again. Then, too, they should know 
that although microbes are too small to be seen, they 
never evaporate with the water. 

You may choose the brownest pool of water in the 
dustiest street in New York, but the vapor that the sun 
draws from that water is as pure and sweet as it is from 
any mountain spring. Disease microbes may be thick 
enough in the pool to give cholera or typhoid fever to 
one hundred men, but after the water has evaporated 
and after the vapor has turned to water again you and 



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DRINKING WATER 



105 



I may drink that water without the slightest danger 
from any sort of disease microbes that may have been 
in the pool. That is why rain water, direct from the 
sky through clean air and caught in clean pails, is 
always safe. 

We must not forget, however, that rain water changes 
according to what comes in contact with it. First is 
the air. If this is full of dust and smoke, the earliest 
raindrops or snowflakes are not the clean ones, for they 
have washed the air and hold the dust themselves; but 
after the first sprinkle the water that follows is per- 
fectly pure. 

Nevertheless, if this pure water is caught in unclean 
reservoirs or polluted streams, it will be changed ; or, still 
more serious, if microbes of typhoid fever, Asiatic cholera, 
or other diseases that attack the intestines can by any 
chance reach that water, every man, woman, and child 
who drinks it will be in danger. 

It is well to know that in the United States the one 
water disease that we need to fear is typhoid fever, 
and that the only possible way for typhoid microbes 
to get into the water is from what passes out of the 
bodies of those who have the disease. For this reason 
the history of our drinking water after it reaches the 
ground may be a matter of life and death to us. 

Though all water comes down in rain and either stays 
in lakes and rivers or soaks deep into the ground to 



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I06 TOWN AND CITY 

supply wells and springs, still people speak of three 
kinds : 

1. Rain water, or water caught and stored 
in reservoirs. 

2. Surface water, or water in lakes, ponds, 
and rivers. 

3. Ground water, or water from wells and 
springs. 

When no bacteriologist examines our drinking water 
we have, to trust to its history; that is, we have to know 
whether or not typhoid microbes have had any chance 
to find their way into it. 

Rain water caught in well-made reservoirs is perfectly 
safe ; ground water away from human dwellings is safe 
too, but surface water has to be looked after pretty 
carefully. 

We must also remember that as freezing does not kill 
microbes, ice that has no respectable history behind it is 
as unsafe as the same sort of water would be ; it should 
not be put into what we eat or drink. As a rule, on this 
account it is much safer to cool things by having ice 
near rather than in them. It is different, however, with 
manufactured ice, for this is generally made from dis- 
tilled water. And when it has so creditable a history as 
that we may safely put it into what we eat and what we 
drink. 



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CHAPTER XIV 

GETTING WATER TO TOWN 

It is a pity that the cities of Europe and America did 
not learn the Roman and the Chinese lesson long ago. 
Instead they have had some bitter experiences, one of 
which came to Plymouth, Pennsylvania, in 1885. The 
town had eight thousand inhabitants. Some of them 
took their drinking water from wells and springs, others 
used water from the Susquehanna River, while still 
others drew it from a beautiful stream that came down 
from the mountains and was stored in reservoirs above 
them. This water was so pure that those who used it 
felt perfectly safe until April, 1885. Then came typhoid 
fever, — one case at first, then five, fifteen, twenty, until 
within a few days the doctors had more than they 
could do. Fifty people were ill in one day ; one hundred 
more the next day, and the numbers increased so fast 
that soon eleven hundred men, women, and children had 
the same disease, and one hundred and fourteen of them 
died of it. 

In the meantime everybody was hunting for the cause. 

Some doctor then discovered that the only persons 

who had the fever were those who used water from the 

107 

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io8 



TOWN AND CriY 



f 4th Besenpotr 



mountain stream, and men were sent at once to examine 
the banks and the reservoirs. 

The road they took led them past the reservoirs one 
by one until they had nearly reached the last of the four; 
and here, beside the bank, was the house that caused 

all the trouble. Only two 
houses were anywhere 
near the stream, yet all the 
mischief came from one of 
them. 

It seems that through 
the winter a man had 
been ill there with typhoid 
fever, and that while he 
was ill his nurse had used 
the river bank as the 
emptying place for every- 
thing that passed from his 
body. The ground was 
frozen at the time, but we 
learned in Good Health 
that cold does not kill 
microbes. On the contrary, when spring came they 
thawed out with the snow, and trickled down the banks 
and into the stream with the melted ice ; from there they 
reached the reservoirs and were carried to the people 
through the water pipes. 




Map of Plymouth, Pennsylvania, 
IN 1885 



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GETTING WATER TO TOWN 109 

In fact, there was no question about the history of that 
water, and it was easy to understand where all the illness 
came from. Every doctor knew that the microbes from 
one man had given the disease to eleven hundred other 
people. 

Besides the illness and death in the city there was 
the expense of it. It cost Plymouth eight thousand dol- 
lars to maintain a hospital for the patients. In addi- 
tion there was the loss of time and wages, with so many 
other expenses that it really cost the town over sixty- 
seven thousand dollars to have those microbes in her 
drinking water, — enough to have paid the salary of a 
man to watch the banks for many years. No wonder the 
loss taught a great lesson to the entire country. 

To show why towns sometimes need to bring water 
from a distance and how they do it, take the case of 
Oberlin, Ohio, with its five thousand inhabitants. 

Formerly many families in the place used well water 
for drinking, but as typhoid fever grew more common, 
and as houses were put closer together, a chemist was 
asked to look into the matter and see if the water was 
safe. He himself was surprised enough when he found 
sewage in almost every well. Yet this was perfectly 
natural, for, not knowing the danger, people often dug 
the well near the kitchen or the barn, with the outhouse 
not far away. It was convenient near by, and they 
thought there could certainly be no danger whatever so 



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no TOWN AND CITY 

long as no one was ill in the house. But the history 
of Broad Street well, in London, shows what may happen 
in case illness does come. When, therefore, Oberlin 
knew the state of her own wells, and when she had 
decided to bring her drinking water from a safer place, 
she chose three men and told them to do three things. 

1. To find water fit to drink. 

2. To find enough to supply the whole 
town. 

3. To plan to keep it pure from the time 
it left its source until it reached the homes 
of the people. 

These men did their work faithfully. They examined 
the country for miles in every direction, traveled up the 
banks of every small stream, searched diligently for 
sparkling springs, and ended by choosing the springs that 
are the source of the east branch of the Vermilion River. 

At a point six miles from Oberlin, they now bought 
one hundred and fifty acres of land, put a dam across 
the narrow stream, gathered all the water Oberlin needed, 
laid glazed pipes ten inches in diameter, and let the 
water run through them to the town. 

In the meantime, in Oberlin itself, they bought ten acres 
of ground, had it scraped out for a reservoir sixteen feet 
deep and a quarter of a mile around, planted grass seed on 
the banks, let the ten-inch stream of Vermilion water pour 
into it, and soon had fifteen million gallons ready for use. 



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GETTING WATER TO TOWN 



III 



Last of all came the engine house, pumps, standpipe, 
and filter, — so fine an outfit that to-day the small town 
of Oberlin has water as pure and safe as that of any city 
in the land. It is, in fact, as satisfactory as surface water 
can be made. 

In some ways it is indeed much easier to manage 
the water supply in a small town than in a large one ; 
and Cleveland,, thirty miles from Oberlin, shows the 




Water in Storage for the Citizens of Oberlin 

difference very well. Although now a large city on the 
shores of Lake Erie, still, years ago, Cleveland was a 
mere village with no question about drinking water, for 
the lake itself is eighty miles across, and neither steamers 
nor freight boats traveled on it then, as they do now, 
and the villages on its shore were few and small. 

Naturally, therefore, Cleveland drank Lake Erie water 
fearlessly. More than that, not knowing the risk, — for 
no one suspected danger of that kind in those days, — 



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112 



TOWN AND CITY 



sewage also was poured into the lake. That explained all 
that followed, for the village soon grew to be a town, and 
the town to be a city. There were one thousand people 

in it, then one hundred 
thousand, two hun- 
dred thousand, four 
hundred thousand. At 
the same time, each 
year the city used more 
and more drinking 
water from Lake Erie 
and poured more and 
more sewage back 
into it ; also, each year 
there was more typhoid 
fever everywhere in 
the city. 

Finally those who 
were intelligent about 
such matters began to 
suspect that city sew- 
age was getting mixed 
with city drinking water, and they promptly boiled 
all they drank; but thousands of other citizens knew 
nothing about such things, and the fever accordingly 
spread so fast that soon hundreds had it and many 
died. 




Water is Pumped from the Reservoirs 

INTO THE StANDPIPE, THEN SENT TO THE 

Homes of Oberlln 



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GEITING WATER TO TOWN 113 

By this time everybody was frightened. Some bought 
water by the bottle and by the gallon from men who 
brought it from the country to sell; others learned to 
boil it; while people who went to the city from the 
country to shop dared not take a drop of water from 
the time they left home in the morning until they 
reached home again at night. 

The reason for all this is plain when we understand 
the exact situation. 

Cleveland has two sets of underground pipes up and 
down all her streets. One set takes water to each house 
from a point in the lake which used to be about a mile 
and a quarter from the shore. The other set gathers up 
the sewage from the different houses in the city and 
empties it into the lake at different points along the 
shore. 

Now those who understood the subject at the time 
said that if there were any chance to watch what was 
going on in the lake between the sewage pipes and the 
water pipes, everything would be explained. They were 
sure that the great stream of water which the pumps on 
land were drawing up into the water pipes also drew up 
some of the sewage from the sewer pipes. 

An epidemic of typhoid fever came in 1903. Yet long 
before that the mayor of the city had asked special stu- 
dents of such subjects to come to Cleveland and give 
advice about the water and the sewage of the city. 



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114 TOWN AND CITY 

These men came. They examined the currents of 
water in the lake and the direction of the winds, also 
studying the water itself through a microscope. They 
then said that the city must make a change at once; 
that the water intake must be put ten miles from the 
sewage outlet; that one must be east of the city, the 
other west ; and that the water must be taken from near 
the bottom of the lake, five miles from land. 

Cleveland now discussed the matter thoroughly. All 
intelligent citizens knew that the expense of the changes 
would be enormous, but they also knew that impure 
water was a fearful thing to drink and they decided 
that the best water must be had at any cost. Con- 
tracts were therefore given, the work moved on steadily, 
and in 1904 the new intake nine feet in diameter was 
finished. 

Almost at once doctors noticed a change in the 
typhoid situation. Fewer cases were reported and fewer 
died ; indeed, after that, the death rate from typhoid fever 
decreased so fast from month to month that within a 
year even timid citizens felt safe again. Boiled water was 
not the rule any longer; spring water went begging for 
purchasers; hospitals were empty of typhoid patients; 
visitors from out of town drank the water without fear; 
and everywhere health and good cheer crowded typhoid 
fever and fear out of the houses, so much so that city 
health reports were pleasant reading again. 



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GEITING WATER TO TOWN 115 

One small set of figures comparing three months in 
1904 with the same months in 1905 shows what the 
change really was. 

Deaths from Typhoid by the Month 



1904 
1905 



Febraary 


March 


April 


45 


50 


27 


2 


5 


7 



Cleveland is so progressive, and does so much for 
the health of her citizens in every direction, that in the 
end she will probably decide either to send her drinking 
water through large sand filters, or to filter the sewage 
before it goes into the lake. This will be done because 
it is not perfectly certain that at some time winds and 
waves may not drive the sewage in the wrong direction. 

For very many years Chicago had the same experi- 
ence as Cleveland: that is, all the sewage of the city 
went into Lake Michigan and all the city drinking water 
came from the same lake. Each year, also, there was 
increasing typhoid fever until at last, in desperation, 
Chicago voted to spend forty-three million dollars in 
improving her drinking water. 

By digging a canal twenty-eight miles long, the sewage 
of the city was now turned away from the lake, and, 
mixed with a great volume of lake water, it streamed 
from one river into another until it entered the Missis- 
sippi and flowed on to the Gulf of Mexico, 



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Il6 TOWN AND CITY 

Immediately after that there was a change in the city 
death record. Instead of sixteen deaths for each thou- 
sand of the people each year, the number dropped to 
fourteen deaths for the same number of people. This 
meant the saving of hundreds of lives every year. 

In the meantime, however, three hundred and fifty 
miles away, the citizens of St. Louis were drinking 
Mississippi River water as they had always done. The 
next chapter will give us a notion as to what they thought 
of the Chicago scheme for getting rid of sewage. 



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CHAPTER XV 

RIVERS, DRINKING WATER, AND SEWAGE 

When St. Louis realized that the entire stream of 
Chicago sewage was being emptied into her own water 
supply there was great indignation in the city. Not only 
so, but in 1900 a famous lawsuit was begun in behalf of 
St. Louis, called " The Chicago Drainage Canal Case." 
Through this lawsuit the state of Missouri tried to com- 
pel the state of Illinois to prevent Chicago from sending 
sewage onward to the Mississippi River. The defense 
argued that so much lake water went on with the sewage 
that the liquid which reached St. Louis from Chicago was 
purer than that which the Missouri River poured into 
the Mississippi above St. Louis. They also said that 
after typhoid microbes from Chicago had spent ten or 
twenty days in getting to St. Louis they were probably 
dead. This could not be proved, but every scientist 
granted that the distance greatly reduced the danger. 

The case was tried before the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Expert scientists were engaged on both 
sides; every city in the land was interested, and, after 
about six years of investigation and discussion, the court 
gave its decision in favor of Chicago. 



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TOWN AND CITY 



In multitudes of cases, however, cities on the same river 
are but a few miles apart, and then it is that the water 
and the sewage problems become very serious. A remark- 
able example of this used to be that of the Merrimac 

River in Massachusetts. 
Turn to a map of New 
England and you will 
see how this river runs 
through New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts and 
empties into the Atlantic 
Ocean. You will also no- 
tice that, besides all sorts 
of smaller towns, there are 
seven good-sized cities on 
its banks, — Concord, Man- 
chester, Nashua, Lowell, 
Lawrence, Haverhill, and 
Newburyport. 

The history of the drinking water in these cities is 
especially interesting because it shows how it has been 
connected with typhoid fever over and over again. 

Each city started with a few families. These increased 
until each group became a village. Each village then 
grew until it was a city, and most of the families in most 
of the cities always took their drinking water from the 
river and poured their sewage back into it. At first 



i? 


fcOBol- 






Manchester 

T H AM P S H I R E 


f 

ToTffe 

vaug 


%>T^Pond 


Vs iL MASS. 



A River that carried Disease 
FROM City to City 



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RIVERS, DRINKING WATER, AND SEWAGE 119 

pails and buckets were used to dip up the water and 
carry it to the houses, but in time the cities put in 
two sets of pipes, — one for water, the other for sewage. 

This arrangement continued unchanged for years, 
though finally some of the cities grew suspicious and 
took their drinking water from elsewhere. But there 
was no change about the sewage ; by day and by night 
all the streams that emptied into the Merrimac River, 
and all the cities that stood on its banks, poured their 
sewage into it. 

Of course the farther downstream a city stood the 
more sewage it received from other places. In fact, the 
only houses that were perfectly safe in that whole region 
were those that were so near the sources of the river 
itself, or of its little branches, that no other people 
lived above them. 

Cleveland spoiled her own drinking water with her 
own sewage, but on the Merrimac River each city was 
spoiling the water for every family below it. 

This was done innocently, of course, for long ago, when 
people knew nothing about microbes, they judged water 
by . its color, its taste, and its odor. If it had no odor, 
looked pure, and tasted sweet, it was considered perfectly 
safe for'drinking. 

. Even later than that, when scientists knew about 
microbes, they believed that no matter how much sewage 
a city poured into a river, if the river itself was of goOd 



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I20 TOWN AND CITY 

size, and if the nearest city downstream was several miles 
away, the water would be free from disease by the time 
it reached there. Somehow they thought that moving 
water purified itself, and they knew that the size of a 
river always made a difference. 

Now it is indeed true that the larger the river, and the 
farther off the next city, the safer the people are when 
they use the water. This is partly because the more 
water sewage mixes with the more dilute it will be, and 
the farther apart the microbes will be scattered. That, 
in turn, means that the more dilute the sewage the less 
danger there is to those who drink it. 

Then, too, some microbes do certainly die on the way 
downstream, so that distance is a great help; but when 
we think of that one man ill with typhoid fever above 
Plymouth, and of all the people who died, we realize 
that even very dilute typhoid sewage is perilous stuff to 
drink. 

In former times, however, the Merrimac River people 
were so sure that their river had purified itself by mov- 
ing, that even while they were dying of the fever they 
kept on drinking unboiled river water. At least this 
was the case with Lowell and Lawrence. 

To make the matter more tragic, the list of deaths 
for each year for each separate city shows that during 
every year from 1889 to 1893 Lowell had more typhoid 
deaths than Concord, Manchester, or Nashua, and that 



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RIVERS, DRINKING WATER, AND SEWAGE 12I 

Lawrence had a much longer death list than Lowell. 
Look at the map again and you will find the explanation 
of both facts. Lowell is farther downstream than Con- 
cord, Manchester, and Nashua, while Lawrence stands 
below Lowell. 

Indeed, the two places are only nine miles apart, and 
both receive drinking water mixed with sewage from 
all the other cities, but Lawrence gets an extra quantity 
because all the sewage from Lowell, with a population 
of eighty-five thousand, flows on in her direction. 

In 1893 Newburyport had a sad experience. This 
city is below Lawrence, and, as a rule, brings water 
from large, pure springs at a distance from the river. 
But in January of that year about thirty people in 
different parts of the city had typhoid fever at about 
the same time. This was astonishing, and there was a 
good deal of investigation. Then it appeared that the 
springs had not been giving enough water to supply the 
entire city, and, to piece out, some one had turned 
Merrimac River water into the pipes. This had been 
going on for some time, and no harm came of it until 
typhoid fever broke out in Lawrence. Shortly after the 
same trouble reached Newburyport, and no one doubted 
that the microbes had traveled down by water from 
Lawrence. 

An example like this simply shows how disease in one 
city may destroy life in another. 



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122 TOWN AND CITY 

For several years Lawrence had over three times as 
many deaths from typhoid fever, for the size of the city, 
as Cambridge, Worcester, or Lynn. When we notice 
that the cities which escaped did not use Merrimac 
River water, we understand the case at once. 

The truth is that, even in 1890, intelligent men and 
women were ignorant or careless about the history of 
their drinking water. As for typhoid fever in Lawrence, 
so many died every year of that disease that people fell 
into the habit of thinking that it belonged to the place, 
that it came in the air, or in some other mysterious 
way ; they were slow in putting the responsibility on the 
shoulders of the microbes from other cities. 

Finally, however, those who watched noticed that there 
was something remarkable in the way the fever came. 
They realized that whenever Lowell had it Lawrence 
followed with a worse attack, and that when Lowell had 
no fever Lawrence was apt to have none. 

Mr. H. F. Mills, a member of the State Board of 
Health, had already called attention to the matter, and 
he said that the cause was probably impure water. In 
1890 the epidemic was so serious in Lowell that Pro- 
fessor William T. Sedgwick, who was at that time the 
biologist of the State Board of Health, was asked to 
study the case thoroughly; while the water board of 
Lowell also asked him to tell them how to avoid such 
epidemics in the future. 



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RIVERS, drinking: WATER, AND SEWAGE 123 

Professor Sedgwick and his assistants went to work at 
once. The first thing they did was to find out whether 
any one had had typhoid fever in that region before the 
real epidemic began. It then appeared that on the banks 
of a small stream called Stony Brook there had been 
several cases of the fever. The sewage from these people 
had gone into the brook, the brook had emptied into the 
Merrimac River, and two miles below were the intake 
water pipes for Lowell. Surely the road the microbes 
had traveled was as plain as in the Plymouth case; 
through the brook and the river they reached the pipes, 
and from the pipes the people drank them. 

That was the first chapter of the epidemic. The 
second followed about two weeks later, when the same 
disease appeared in Lawrence. As we understand the 
matter in these days, we see that the epidemic was 
bound to reach Lawrence, because by this time all the 
sewage from the hundreds of people who were ill in 
Lowell was hurrying down those nine miles by river 
to Lawrence, and every day thousands of people were 
innocently drinking it with the water. 

The more the state board of health studied the subject 
the more interested they became. By this time they had 
given up the notion that running water purifies itself; 
they were also sure that the danger was from microbes in 
the sewage, not from the sewage itself, and that those 
microbes were not killed by traveling downstream. 



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124 



TOWN AND CITY 



They saw that Lowell and Lawrence always had 
sewage in their drinking water, but that they only had 
typhoid fever when there was typhoid fever in the cities 
above them. They also saw that there was no possible 
way to tell by the color or the taste or the general looks 
of any water whether there were disease microbes in it 

or not, and they promptly 
decided that the only way 
to be safe was to be rid 
of every possible microbe 
and drink only the purest 
water. 

Now this was more 
easily said than done, for 
the question was how to 
get the purest water for 
every city. There was 
Cleveland, for example, 
who gave herself typhoid 
fever by carrying her own microbes round and round 
in a circle through her drinking water and her sewage. 
Then there was Lawrence that took typhoid microbes 
from other cities. Yet Cleveland must keep on using 
lake water, and Lawrence must take hers from. a river. 
What they needed was some way of changing the char- 
acter of the water in both places. The question was 
how to do it. 




Typhoid Microbes 

To study i\ieflagella on them see Good 
Healthy page 30 



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CHAPTER XVI 

PURIFICATION OF WATER AND SEWAGE 

The State Board of Health now advised Lawrence to 
put in large out-of-door filters, as London and Berlin 
had done. 

They said it was the only thing to do. Indeed, they 
knew from experiments which they themselves had made 
just how helpful such filters may be. This settled the 
case for Lawrence. 

The city now borrowed thousands of dollars, engaged 
many workmen, accepted plans which Mr. Mills had 
nlade free of charge, and proceeded to make huge sand 
filters which covered two and a half acres of ground. 

As the work went on everybody was interested. It 
certainly did not look as if such filters could do any 
particular good, for they were made simply of layers of 
gravel and of coarse and fine sand, with pipes under- 
neath. The water was to go from the river to the surface 
of the filters, and from there it was to soak through the 
sand and be carried in pipes to all parts of the city. 

After about one year of work the filters were ready, 
and before using them bacteriologists examined a sample 
of the water in the laboratory, just as they always do 

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126 TOWN AND CITY 

in such cases, and found millions of microbes in every 
spoonful of it. This showed how much it needed to be 
purified, but no one except a scientist could have any 
idea how the microbes would be taken out of the water. 
Nevertheless, after several months even unscientific per- 
sons began to understand the wonderful work which 
was being done. They saw river water with its load of 
microbes before it went on the filters ; they also saw it 
after it came from the pipes underneath, and they believed 
the bacteriologists who told them that this water was 
now almost as free from microbes as a mountain stream. 
But still they wondered if the filters would continue to 
do good work year after year. 

The answer came two years after they were finished. 
Lowell suffered from another epidemic; one hundred 
and seventy-four people were ill ; and Lawrence, remem- 
bering that every typhoid epidemic in Lowell used to 
mean a worse siege yet for herself, waited anxiously. 
This time, however, she escaped. In fact, her filters now 
worked so well from one year's end to another that only 
one fifth as many people died from typhoid fever each 
year. That means that the citizens of Lawrence are now 
five times as safe from typhoid fever as they used to be. 

No wonder the city believes in filters. No wonder 
the whole country has learned a lesson. 

Lawrence used to be such an unhealthful place that 
people dreaded to live there. To-day it is one of the 



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PURIFICATION OF WATER AND SEWAGE 127 

most healthful cities in Massachusetts, and both the 
citizens and the world know that sand filters have done 
more for the health of Lawrence than anything else the 
city has ever paid for. When they were put in there 
were but two others of the kind in America, Now, how- 
ever, from one end of the country to the other, cities are 
making them as fast as their citizens understand how 
much they need them. 

In some places a mechanical filter, as it is called, does 
much the same work in a different way ; that is, it clears 
out multitudes of microbes. These filters are also widely 
used. The truth is that intelligent citizens everywhere 
are beginning to see that a good filter means more for 
the protection of life and health than doctors and car 
loads of medicine. 

Even so long ago as 1885 the legislature of the state 
of Massachusetts decided that the Board of Health should 
give advice to the towns and cities of the state in all 
questions of water and sewage; and, in order that this 
might be done wisely, the Board examined every river, lake, 
and pond in the state, and knew just how safe and just 
how unsafe the water was in the different towns and cities. 

Massachusetts has also ordered that no town or city 
shall supply itself with water, or put in a sewage system^ 
without showing the plans to the State Board of Health. 
Thus she is able to protect the water rights of each 
family, town, and city in the state. 



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128 TOWN AND CITY 

She can do this wisely because she has studied the 
sewage as well as the water question. 

The great sand filters of Lawrence are intended for 
nothing more than to purify the river water, and in this 
they succeed. But the state has done even more than 
that. She has established what is called an experiment 
station and here, for years, she has been trying to discover 
some way by which cities may get rid of their own sew- 
age without ruining the drinking water of neighboring 
cities. The station is in Lawrence. 

These experiments began in 1887, and are still going 
on. Through them scientists in Massachusetts have 
learned more about purifying sewage than has ever been 
known before. They have made sewage filters of every 
sort and tested them faithfully. Each separate sewage 
filter is like a long barrel ; some large, and some small ; 
they all stand in the experiment station, and from the 
experiments that scientific experts have made by run- 
ning sewage through those filters, they have discovered 
many important facts. 

They have learned how to change the worst sort of 
sewage into clear and sparkling water. They have 
learned that no matter how any sewage looks or smells 
when it is poured upon a good sand filter, and no matter 
how many millions of microbes there may be in every 
thimbleful of it, still after it has soaked through the 
filter and run off through the drainpipes underneath 



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PURIFICATION OF WATER AND SEWAGE 



129 



ninety-nine out of every hundred of these microbes will 
have vanished. 

They have found that they can make filtered sewage 
as safe to drink as the well water of Lawrence. This 
has surprised the world. No one knows precisely how 
the work is done, but it is plain that somewhere between 
the top of the filter and the bot- 
tom most of the swarming microbes 
have been killed and taken out of 
the way. And now, from different 
parts of the world, scientific men as 
well as other people go to see the 
curious sight, — a filter with yellow, 
disagreeable sewage on top and a 
stream of clear, pure water running 
out below. It looks like magic, but 
those who use the filter are willing 
to tell the secret. They say that sand filter 

sewage filters are made very much From coarse gravel to fine 
like those for water. First of all are *^"^ 

the drainpipes. Above these is a layer of the smallest 
stones ; next, a layer of coarse sand, and on top a layer 
of very fine sand. ' The whole together makes a bed 
four or five feet thick. This is the whole scheme. Cer- 
tainly it is a simple machine to do such marvelous work. 
Nevertheless, within this machine, living on each grain 
of sand, is the innermost secret of the sand filter. 




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130 - - - TOWN AND CITY 

We all know that certain creatures spend most of 
their time underground, — as the angleworm does, and 
the mole. Yet besides these, on every inch of ground, 
there are millions and. millions of smaller creatures that 
we cannot see. 

Some of -them drift here and there with the dust in 
the air ; but most of them never leave the earth ; it is 
their home, and I suppose there are more of these 
microbes on every foot of ground to-day than there are 
human beings on the earth. 

Many people act as if they considered all microbes 
dangerous. On the contrary, however, many of them are 
the best friends we have. We can only see them with 
the microscope, but they are as truly alive as you and 
I, and, to keep alive, those that help us in our filters 
need oxygen, moisture, and food. This explains the way 
they purify our water and sewage, for on each grain of 
sand in every good sand filter thousands of these friendly 
microbes live and multiply. They are especially thick oii 
the surface of a filter, and it is just there that the most 
important work is done. 

Moreover, they are a hungry host, and they find the 
very best food for themselves in the worst kind of 
sewage. 

When the dreadful stuff is poured on a filter it is 
allowed to soak through slowly; in fact, men have 
noticed that the more slowly it goes the purer it gets. 



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PURIFICATION OF WATER AND SEWAGE .131 

The reason is that the microbes do better work when 
they have time to take every impure thing out of the 
sewage. In doing this, as it turns out, they also destroy 
the disease microbes that were in the water. Thus we 
see that by feeding one set of microbes we have killed 
the other set. In some way our friends have killed our 
enemies and we are safe. 

This is the whole secret of the success of the sand 
filter. It is the friendly microbes on the sand that purify 
the water and save us from disease microbes. 

In air this, sewage filters and water filters are alike, 
but there is an important difference in the way they are 
used. Those microbes on the sand need oxygen as well 
as food. They will die without it, and it seems that water 
holds so much oxygen that the microbes get what they 
need out of it Accordingly a water filter may be kept 
at work continuously. For this reason it is called a con- 
tinuous filter. 

Sewage, on the other hand, holds so little oxygen that 
when the microbes on the sand are covered by it they 
are in danger of being suffocated. In other words, the 
cleaner the liquid which is poured over them, the more 
oxygen the microbes get from it, while the worse the 
liquid, the less oxygen there is for the microbes to use. 
Sewage, therefore, needs an intermittent filter, and its 
name shows just what happens and why it succeeds. Sew- 
age is poured on a filter until it is a few inches deep all 



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132 TOWN AND CITY 

over the top. This soaks slowly through and runs off. 
Another flood is then poured on,. and this is done once 
or twice every day. When sewage is filtered in that 
way it is always purified, because the microbes have had 
a chance to get oxygen out of the air between each flood 
of sewage ; that is, because they could get air they have 
kept alive and busy. 

It is quite the other way if sewage is left on a filter 
all the time for weeks together. In such a case the sand 
microbes get no air, and they are sure to die. When 
that has happened the sewage microbes go safely through 
from top to bottom of the filter and escape in the water 
that runs from the drains underneath. By their escape we 
therefore know that their enemies, the sand microbes, are 
dead. Perhaps we might really say that they have been 
drowned, for what they needed was air, and they could 
not get it. 



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CHAPTER XVII 

PREVENTABLE DISEASE AND THE JAPANESE ARMY 

Of every hundred soldiers who died in the Spanish- 
American war during 1898 twenty were killed by bullets 
and eighty by microbes. 

The war was soon over, lasting but four months ; still 
it was long enough to show that the government of the 
United States had not acted according to its knowledge 
of disease microbes. It had allowed four times as many 
men to die needlessly, in camp and tent, away from 
even the sound of cannon and gun, as fell fighting in 
the cause they were willing to die for. 

Up to that time any other soldiers fighting in any 
other country would have met the same fate, for all 
previous wars had had the same death record. At last, 
however, came the Russo-Japanese struggle of 1902. 
Japan knew that defeat for her meant a ruined empire. 
She alsp realized that, according to the law df numbers, 
she and her forty-eight million people would surely go 
under in the fight against Russia and her one hundred 
and twenty-eight million. Nevertheless, she proposed to 
win, and one of the officers explained to Major Seaman 
how they planned to do it. 

U3 



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134 TOWN AND CITY 

" Russia may be able to place two million men in the 
field," he said ; " we can furnish five hundred thousand. 
You know in every war four men die of disease for every 
one who falls from bullets. That will be the position of 
Russia in this war. We propose to eliminate disease as 
a factor. Every man who dies in our army must fall on 
the field of battle. In this way we shall neutralize the 
superiority of Russian numbers and stand on a compar- 
atively equal footing." 

In other words, it was as if Japan had said, " Our sol- 
diers will not be allowed to die of preventable diseases." 

After that those soldiers were the wonder of the world. 
Hundreds of thousands of men went into the campaign. 
They traveled by rail, by steamer, and by transport; 
they crossed the Corean Straits and the Yellow Sea 
into Corea and China ; they marched across hundreds of 
miles of country where water was not safe to drink ; they 
bought food from people who were ready to sell what was 
not safe to eat; they entered towns where men and 
women were dying of contagious disease; they were 
also wounded in battle like other soldiers; but, from 
first to last they were strong for the march, healthy in 
camp and on the battlefield, and more free from diseases 
than any soldiers who ever went to war before. 

This was so extraordinary that doctors and army 
officers all over the world were eager for an explanation. 
They wanted to know what it was that kept hot, thirsty 



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PREVENTABLE DISEASE 



135 



men from drinking typhoid microbes from polluted wells 
and unclean streams as they marched ; also, why it was 
that hungry soldiers did 
not eat half-ripe fruit and 
unwholesome food on 
their journey, and how 
it happened that when 
they reached a town they 
were able to escape con- 
tagious disease from the 
houses and the beds of 
those who had died from 
smallpox, scarlet fever, 
and the like. 

In answer to all this the 
Japanese made no secret 
of what they did. They 
acknowledged that they 
had first learned about 
disease microbes from 
scientific men of other 
nations, and said that 
they had simply put their 
knowledge into practice. 

This was evidently the case. The government had 
decided that instead of waiting for some epidemic to 
show which water, or food, or town was safe and which 




A Japanese Soldier 
He fights both man and microbe 



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136 TOWN AND CITY 

unsafe, it would find out the actual condition of things 
before the soldiers had any chance to risk their lives. It 
claimed that the best scheme was to fight the microbes, 
or at least to find out where they were and how to 
dodge them, before the soldiers were allowed to fight 
the Russians. 

That then was the secret of Japanese health and 
success. 

To carry out the plan, instead of keeping all the doctors 
with the army to cure the men after they were ill, some 
were sent on ahead with the scouts. 

" Doctors belong in the front," they said, " not in the 
rear." 

So they traveled in front and certainly found enough 
to do; for, whenever they reached a town, every well, 
stream, or spring of water, though it was sparkling 
and cool and as clear as crystal, was examined with 
the utmost care. Those Japanese scientists knew that 
thirsty soldiers sometimes act as if they were willing to 
forget all they knew about water dangers and drink 
almost anything wet ; while at the same time they also 
knew that a great thirst is safer than unknown water 
from polluted streams. 

With this in mind water examinations were thorough, 
and the doctors posted, up notices accordingly. These 
notices were very definite. Sometimes they said, " This 
water is good " ; again it would be, " This water is bad," 



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PREVENTABLE DISEASE 137 

or " This water should not be used unless it is boiled for 
half an hour/' When the army arrived soon afterward 
each man was ready to heed the posters. 

So it was in other directions. When troops of men 
went off on a foraging expedition a doctor always went 
with them. He tested the different kinds of fruit, meat, 
and vegetables which the natives wished to sell ; and 
if the fruit was too ripe or the meat too old or dis- 
eased, he put up a notice saying so. No one touched it 
after that. 

When this same health delegation reached any town 
through which the soldiers must pass, it examined the 
condition of the houses, and if contagious diseases were 
found, that part of the town was quarantined ; that is, no 
soldier was allowed to go into it on any account, or, if this 
could not be managed, the entire army marched on to 
another place. Again also it was a signboard that told 
the men what to do. 

Not only did the government try by every method to 
keep the army in good fighting trim, but other doctors 
stayed in camp to give hygiene lectures to the soldiers. 
They talked about eating and told the men what was 
safest to use ; they talked about drinking and told them 
why boiling was the only way to make unknown water 
safe; they discussed contagious disease and explained 
how it traveled from man to man; in fact, in every 
possible way they made it plain that, as a rule, what the 



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138 TOWN AND CITY 

men ate and what they drank would decide whether they 
would be well or ill, whether they would live or die. 

They went even further than this, for they talked about 
bathing to keep the pores of the skin open, and about 
soiled finger nails that go loaded with microbes. More 
than that, on the war ships the command was that before 
every engagement the men should bathe and put on 
clean underwear. It seems that the surgeons had noticed 
that when a piece of broken shell crowds soiled linen 
into a wound, it turns out to be a more dangerous affair 
than when the linen is clean. 

xThus one command followed another. Evidently the 
government thought that when a man had given up his 
home and was ready to die for his country, he deserved 
the best advice, the best care, and the best food his 
country could give him. 

The soldiers in turn wished to be healthy, and there- 
fore followed directions. What was the result ? 

Major Seaman, from whom we learn most of these 
facts, says that when he visited the military hospital in 
Tokyo he found that over one thousand wounded men 
had already been received and that not one had died, 
while all who were still in the hospital looked as if they 
would recover. The same was true of other reports 
from other hospitals. 

Early in the war 6636 men had been wounded and 
taken to the reserve hospital at Hiroshima; yet up to 



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PREVENTABLE DISEASE 139 

August first only thirty-four of this great number had 
died, although some may, of course, have died later. 
This astonished surgeons in every other land. 

Then there was the hospital ship Hakuai Maru. In 
seven trips she took over two thousand wounded men 
across from China to Japan, and not one of them died 
on the way. 

Never in any war has there been such a record of 
healed wounds. Part of the credit belongs to the vigor- 
ous health of the wounded men, and part to the skilled 
doctors and nurses. 

When the war was over, — when Japan had been vic- 
torious in every great battle and had saved her empire, — 
she made out her reports. Then it was that the nations 
of the world learned their lesson, and saw how they too 
might save their patriots in time of war and increase the 
number of their living heroes. 

The entire campaign lasted over eighteen months, and 
during that time 72,450 Japanese soldiers lost their lives. 
Of these over 57,000 died either on the battlefield or 
from the after effects of their wounds while only 15,300 
died of disease. 

Compare these figures with the old-fashioned war 
records and see how the Japanese turned things topsy- 
turvy. Instead of losing four times as many soldiers by 
preventable disease as by bullets, Japan actually lost 
less than one fourth as many in that useless way. In 



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I40 TOWN AND CITY 

doing this she won as great a victory over the microbe 
as over the Russian. 

What Japan did. for her soldiers cities are gradually 
learning to do for their citizens, and the chapters of this 
book are intended to help in this respect. We all need 
to know that it is much easier, much more economical, 
and much more important to keep people from taking 
disease than it is to cure them after they have it. We 
need to know that prevention saves many times as many 
lives as medicine ever cured, and we need to know what 
particular prevention will save us from what particular 
disease. 



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CHAPTER XVIII 

TOBACCO AND NATIONAL VIGOR 

Japan knows that a race of weak boys can never turn 
itself into a race of strong men. She is also determined 
that the small size of her men shall make no difference 
in her power as a nation or in the number of her 
heroes. To make sure of this she tries to protect her 
boys from whatever may weaken them in body or mind. 
This explains the remarkable proclamation of the 
Emperor of Japan in March, 1900. But before telling 
about that, another bit of history will show how America 
helped Japan along. 

Several years ago Professor Seaver, of Yale University, 
decided to do what he could to discover whether the use 
of tobacco has any special effect on growing boys. He 
was director of the Yale gymnasium, and for nine years, 
until 1897, he weighed and measured all the students 
who entered the university. He not only measured them 
in height, in chest girth, and in weight, but he also asked 
the age of each, and, most important of all, he asked 
whether they had smoked before coming to college. 

The answer to each question was carefully written 

down and kept as a record. At the end of the nine 

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142 TOWN AND CITY 

years, when Dr. Seaver studied and compared these 
student records, he made several important discoveries. 
First of all he saw that, as a rule, the smokers who 
had entered Yale during that time were about fifteen 
months older than the non-smokers. This seemed to 
prove that the minds of the boys who smoked did not 
work so well as the minds of those who did not smoke, 
which, of course, explained their being older when they 
entered college. 

As for the size of their lungs, it appeared that those 
of the average non-smoker could hold about five cubic 
inches more air than the lungs of the smoker; more- 
over, and quite as fortunate for themselves, the average 
height of the non-smokers was about one third of an inch 
more than that of the smokers. This was especially sur- 
prising, for, as we have seen, they were younger and 
ought naturally to have averaged a trifle shorter. 

As these measurements and comparisons went on vari- 
ous people were getting interested. Naturally, of course, 
non-smokers were rather elated, while the smokers were 
surprised and disgusted. But the next point was to 
examine the men who were already in the university. 
They were divided into three groups : 

1. Those who never used tobacco. 

2. Those who had used it for a year at 
least. 

3. Those who used it irregularly. 



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TOBACCO AND NATIONAL VIGOR 143 

The records now showed how much more the non- 
smokers grew than the smokers while they were in 
college. The non-smoking group gained: 

r 10.4 per cent more than those who had smoked a year. 
\ 6.6 per cent more than those who had smoked irregularly. 

f 24 per cent more than those who had smoked a year. 
(II per cent more than those who had smoked irregularly. 

In girth ( 26.7 per cent more than those who had smoked a year. 
of chest \ 22 per cent more than those who had smoked irregularly. 



In lung < 77 per cent more than those who had smoked a year. 
capacity \ 49 per cent more than those who had smoked irregularly. 



Yet, after all, the mind counts most in any great uni- 
versity, and if the smoker could prove that even though 
his body had lost in height and size, his mind had 
gained so much the more in keenness, why of course 
the tables would be turned again, and he could do some 
exulting. Dr. Seaver, therefore, looked into the scholar- 
ship of the two sets of men, and found that out of 
every hundred of those who took the highest rank only 
five were smokers, while ninety-five were not smokers ; 
but among the rest of the students sixty out of every 
hundred smoked. 

When the Japanese heard all this they gave heed. 
But before going into the subject we should remember 
that every boy in Japan used to smoke and that many 
girls smoked too. We should also remember that Jap- 
anese tobacco is not very strong, and not so harmful as 



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144 TOWN AND CITY 

ours. Yet in spite of this, several years after Dr. Seaver's 
experiments, a set of Japanese men decided that the 
wealth, the intelligence, and the fighting power of the 
nation would be increased if the children could be kept 
from smoking. The result was that in December, 1899, 
the House of Representatives in Tokyo discussed the 
matter with a good deal of excitement; the subject of 
discussion being called, " A Bill for prohibiting the 
smoking of Tobacco by Young Persons." 

All those who supported this bill used America and 
Germany as the great arguments. They said that in 
Germany youths under sixteen were forbidden to smoke 
lest they should become unfit for soldiers. They also 
said that in America, at the time of the war with Spain, 
hundreds of young men were refused by the doctors 
because they were not vigorous enough to be soldiers, 
and that ninety out of every hundred of them were 
smokers. They spoke of Dr. Seaver's work at Yale, and 
said that both in the military academy at West Point 
and in the naval academy at Annapolis the United States 
government does not allow any smoking whatever. 

All this was quite convincing, especially when one man 
added : " If we expect to make this nation superior to 
the nations of Europe and America, we must not allow 
our youths in common schools, who are to become the 
fathers and mothers of our country in the near future, 
to smoke. If we desire to cause the light of the nation 



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TOBACCO AND NATIONAL VIGOR 145 

to shine forth over the world, we ought not to follow the 
example of China and India." 

Another man said, "When I see useful young men, 
with their school uniforms on, smoking, I feel very sad 
and often I say to myself, 'How can they accomplish 
great things when they are slaves to tobacco ? ' " Indeed, 
everybody seems to have had the same notion about the 
importance of the bill. Mr. Omura said : 

In 1876 I received treatment from Dr. Takagi in the Tokyo hospital, 
who made an incision in my face, as you see, because I was in a hopeless 
state from tobacco poison. At that time, as I heard afterwards, all gave 
up hope for me, and my relatives discussed the methods of carrying 
my body back to its last home. But here I am, well and strong. Thus 
from my own experience I know that tobacco is a bad thing ; hence I 
should like to see it prohibited altogether, if it be possible. I began to 
smoke at nine, and at twenty-four or twenty-five the habit had become 
simply fearful. I spent much money not only for tobacco itself but 
also for smoking materials. Several times I fell down unconscious on 
the floor. Such was my fondness for tobacco. But twenty years have 
passed since I gave it up entirely, and I have gradually become stronger, 
and at present am a little stronger than Mr. Inouye. ... If one 
smokes, whether he is young or thirty years of age, whether a student 
in a university or in a post-graduate class, he will be poisoned ; hence 
I favor the idea of prohibiting smoking altogether among students. 

Later some one said : 

As to schools and scholars, we pay taxes and bear heavy expenses 
for their support, and we watch with deepest interest the success of 
every scholar. And yet, if the weight of their bodies decreases, the 



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146 TOWN AND CITY 

famg capadtj lessens, and finaUjr the schcdais tfaemsehres become dis- 
eased because of no proper protection against smoking tobacco, then 
the taxes paid by the people at great sacnfice will become fruitless. 
I eamesdy entreat you to reconsider the question of putting special 
restriction upon students. 

After full discussion the bill was changed a little, and 
on December 19, 1899, was adopted by the House of 
Representatives. Two months later the same bill was dis- 
cussed in the House of Peers. The great question was 
whether it would be defeated there, just as our Senate 
at Washington often defeats bills passed by the House 
of Representatives. Yet the outlook was favorable from 
the start. Among others Mr. S. Izawa spoke. He said : 

I too wish to say a word in support of this exceflent bill. ... A 
few days ago some one sent us some printed matter. What was written 
thereon ? It was written that should this bill become a law of the nation, 
there would be a loss of yen 200,000 to the National Treasury. Non- 
sense ! He is a traitor. He is willing to sacrifice the character of our 
youths simply for yen 200,000. What wickedness ! Such a person would 
most surely try to urge the use of opium by and by. As there are such 
traitors, this bill must by all means be carried unanimously, and thus the 
honor and wisdom of this House will be vindicated before the public. 

Mr. T. Obata said : 

I cannot agree with Messrs. Murata and Izawa. I admit that 
tobacco is injurious to young persons, but parents themselves should be 
able to stop its use. . . . Should our children be caught by the police 
on the streets because of smoking tobacco, this very fact is more of a 
disgrace to our children than smoking itself. 



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TOBACCO AND NATIONAL VIGOR 147 

At this point Mr. J. Kodama sprang to his feet and said : 

I wanted to keep silence, but as I heard the gentleman speaking 
against this bill, I felt I must say a few words in its favor. I heard 
from an American gentleman that in his country a large number of 
volunteers for the army service were rejected on account of the weak- 
ness of their hearts, and the chief reason assigned for this defect was 
their habitual use of tobacco. I do not need to say any more from 
the educational standpoint, but if our youths are to become unfit for 
military service by the use of tobacco, it is alarming. By all means, let 
us stop the use of tobacco by young persons. 

Thus the discussion went on until the whole House of 
Peers seemed to come to the same conclusion ; for after 
they had voted on the bill the president of the House 
said : " Since there is no objection, the original bill stands 
approved." 

On the sixth day of March, 1900, by proclamation of 
the Emperor of Japan, the bill became the law of the land. 
The words of the prohibition are, " The smoking of 
tobacco by minors under the age of twenty is prohibited." 

Penalties are attached, and the law went into effect 
on the first day of April, 1900. 

Though Japan has done more than any other govern- 
ment in this direction, still she learned her lesson from 
America; and we are becoming more and more sensible 
in the matter of putting our own knowledge into practice. 
Our government led the way in her military schools, 
but our athletes are following close behind; in fact, 



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148 TOWN AND CITY 

they are so strict that it almost looks as if they did 
the leading. Throughout the country the captains and 
trainers of the best of our football, baseball, and basket- 
ball teams, of the best boat crews and athletic meets, are 
united against the use of tobacco by their men. Many 
of them prohibit it absolutely. The reason is that they 
wish their men to win, and they are sure, just as the 
Japanese are, that tobacco will be a hindrance to them. 
They say it puts the body machine out of order. 



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CHAPTER XIX 
FOOD INSPECTION 

Springfield, Massachusetts, had no question about 
her epidemic in 1882, nor about the cause of it. The 
drainage was good and the houses clean and healthful ; 
yet the epidemic was typhoid fever, and neither the 
doctors nor the health department could tell where it 
came from. They then asked the state board of health 
to lend a hand. 

This ended with the discovery that each person who 
was ill used milk from the same milkman, that the milk- 
man bought all he had from a certain farmer in the coun- 
try, and that a man in the farmer's family had just had 
typhoid fever. Even yet, however, there was a mystery, 
for how did the microbes from the body of that particu- 
lar man ever reach the milk ? No one could answer the 
question, for no one knew. Perhaps the cans had been 
washed in water that held the microbes; perhaps the 
microbes were on the hands of the man who did the 
milking ; perhaps some one had put contaminated water 
into the cans to increase the milk supply. In one way 
or another the microbes had certainly reached the milk, 

for the epidemic proved it. 

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TOWN AND CITY 



Springfield does not stand alone in this sort of calam- 
ity; indeed, a few years ago a medical journal gave a 
list of three hundred and thirty outbreaks of epidemic 
disease that started from microbes in milk. One hun- 
dred and forty-seven of these cases were typhoid 
fever, while most of the others were scarlet fever 
and diphtheria. 

It is not disease microbes alone that damage milk, for a 
second great mischief is done when too many microbes 
of even the harmless kind are in it. Ninety-two New 
York babies once taught the board of health a lesson 
on this subject. It happened during the summers of 
1 902-1 903, and various doctors watched the case. Fifty- 
one of the babies were using milk just as the city milk- 
man brought it, while forty-one received what is called 
pasteurized milk, that is, milk that has not been boiled 
but has been heated long enough to kill the microbes. 



Kinds op Milk and 
Number op Microbes 


Number 

OF 

Babies 


Well 

ALL 

Summer 


Quite 
III 


Average 
Webkut Gain 
in Weight 


Average 
Number of 

Days of 
Diarrhea 


Deaths 


Pasteurized . . . 
1000 to 50,000 per 
cubic centimeter 

Raw Milk . . . 
1,200,000 to 10,000,- 
000 per cubic centi- 
meter 


41 
51 


31 

17 


10 
34 


4 OZ. 
3.5 OZ. 


3-9 
11.5 


I 
2 



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FOOD INSPECTION 151 

The point to discover was which milk was best for 
every kind of baby. After the records were kept and 
the preceding table made out no one had any doubts 
on the subject. One cubic centimeter stands for about 
twenty drops. 

While the doctors were studying the case thirteen of 
the babies who used raw milk were so sick that they 
were changed over to the heated milk diet; indeed, 
unless this had been done, the chances are that some of 
them would have died and increased the raw-milk death 
list. Yet, in a matter of that kind, no one dares to go 
far enough to see how many babies will really die, for 
they are far too precious to be risked. 

Nevertheless, the experiment proved very clearly that 
babies who use pasteurized milk are much more likely 
to live and less likely to be ill than other babies. 

Of course, milk without microbes in it at the start 
would have been even better for the babies than milk in 
which the microbes had been killed ; but the trouble is 
that impure milk never tells any tales about itself, for 
it looks as pure and sweet as the purest milk in the 
market. Between the epidemics and the babies, how- 
ever, we see that microbes may damage milk in two 
definite ways: 

1. By being carriers of disease. 

2. By being too numerous, although they 
may not be disease microbes. 



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152 TOWN AND CITY 

Springfield suffered from the disease carriers, while 
the fifty-one New York babies suffered from the num- 
ber of the microbes. To explain how mere numbers 
could harm them, we must know that milk is as good a 
food for microbes as for babies, and that they multiply 
so fast in it that, if it is not cold, one microbe will 
become two hundred in three hours, ten thousand in 
six hours, ten million in nine hours, and so on. 

We see then that if a few are in it when it leaves the 
cow in the country, there may be countless millions of 
them by the time it reaches the baby in the city. 

Now there is just one special objection to these mul- 
titudes of microbes that are harmless in themselves, and 
that is the change they make in the milk while they 
are multiplying in it. The truth is that even harm- 
less microbes damage milk in this way, and the more 
microbes the more harm. When, therefore, the num- 
bers increase by the hundred million for each thimble- 
ful of it, the milk finally becomes so changed that it 
injures the stomach and intestines of delicate human 
beings. Strong men may not notice the difference, but 
babies are almost sure to suffer. This is all the more 
pitiful because they have to use more milk than any 
one else. 

As the table shows, those New York babies who 
used raw milk were taking anywhere up to ten mil- 
lion microbes with each twenty drops of milk they 



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FOOD INSPECTION 1 53 

drank, and such a large number is sure to do great 
mischief. 

The health department of New York City has decided 
that milk is not spoiled for use if there are no more than 
one million microbes for every twenty drops, but they 
say a larger number must not be allowed and that a 
smaller number is safer. To make things perfectly safe, 
doctors recommend boiled or pasteurized milk for babies 
and frail people. 

Naples, Italy, is rather safer from microbes in milk 
than many other cities, because in that place the milk- 
man drives the cow through the streets from house to 
house, and those who need milk may bring out their 
own milk pails and keep their eyes on the man while he 
does the milking. They may also see that he adds no 
water to what they buy. 

Such milk is likely to satisfy the three conditions of 
pure milk, — freshness, cleanliness, and freedom from 
disease microbes. 

In the milk that we use every one of the points might 
be lacking, and yet our eyes could tell us nothing about 
it. The fact is that bacteriologists with their micro- 
scopes are the only ones who can decide positively 
whether milk is pure or impure, for they are able to dis- 
cover what is in it. During the same day, in the same 
city, in cans of milk standing side by side, these bac- 
teriologists have found that one can may hold only three 



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154 TOWN AND CITY 

hundred thousand microbes to the cubic centimeter, 
while another can may have as many as one hundred 
and eighty million in the same quantity. 

When this was made plain New York City decided 
that a business which supplies four million people with 
one of their most important lines of food must not be 
allowed to go. on doing mischief to unsuspecting people. 
The health department, therefore, took up the matter 
and sent a man off to make investigations. He was to 
do two things : 

1. To see how microbes get into milk in 
the first place. 

2. To see what could be done to keep 
milk as pure as possible from the time it left 
the farm until it reached the city.* 

1 Boston, Washington, St. Louis, Chicago, Baltimore, Cleveland, Rochester, 
and many other cities are already wide-awake and active in regard to the purity 
of their milk supply. 



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CHAPTER XX 

FOOD INSPECTION {continued) 

The inspector was to visit farms and cows in every 
direction. 

This was a great undertaking, for New York City uses 
about a million quarts of milk daily, and it comes not 
only from New York State itself but from Pennsylvania, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey. Some of it 
travels four hundred miles to get to the city, while among 
those who send it there is every sort of man owning every 
sort of cow: men who are clean and men who are 
unclean; men who are intelligent and men who are 
ignorant ; cows that are well cared for, sleek, and clean, 
and cows uncared for and neglected; cows that are 
healthy and cows that are unhealthy. 

More than that, the inspector soon saw that, according 
as the men and cows were clean or unclean, the milk 
was pure or impure. He also noticed how the milking 
was done. 

In some cases each pan and pail was scalded, each 
stable clean, each cow groomed, while the milkman 
himself not only washed his hands before he milked but 
also wiped the milk bag with a damp cloth. Indeed, in 

155 

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156 



TOWN AND CITY 



such places as that "Cleanliness" was evidently the 
motto, for everything looked as if the owner had said : 
" You microbes may starve to death before 1 11 give 
one of you a chance if I can help it. I am your enemy." 




A Model Dairy 
Clean cows, clean stables, and clean milk 

Milk from these " model dairies," as they are called, 
is pure and sweet and safe. It is an astonishing con- 
trast to that which comes from what we might call the 
" microbe dairies." Here the untidy farmer seems to say 
to his microbes, " Truly I 'm the best friend you have, 
and I '11 do everything to please you." In his stable. 



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FOOD INSPECTION 



157 



therefore, the inspector saw straw and dust on ceiling and 
floor, cows ungroomed, pans and pails unscalded. When 
milking time came there was no washing of hands or 
milk bag ; on the contrary, with his hands as they were. 




Unclean Milk is sold from Here 

the milkman took the pail, rinsed it with water that 
might or might not have disease microbes in it, went to 
the dusty stable, raised the dust by kicking the cow to 
make her stand up, slapped her on the side to make her 
move along, sat down on his stool, and began to milk 
vigorously. 

To soften his hands, he wet them with the first milk 
he drew, letting it drop from them into the milk pail. 



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158 



TOWN AND CITY 



As he now pumped up and down against the milk 
bag bits of dust went into the pail with the milk. At 
the same time flies troubled the cow, and to drive them 
away she often switched her tail from side to side. This 
raised more dust, and scattered tail hairs in the milk. 




Ice to keep Microbes from Multiplying 

The milkman gave no heed, however, for, being 
ignorant, he supposed that straining would remedy all 
that. Finally, therefore, he sent the milk through a fine 
wire or cloth sieve ; and if it moved slowly, as if the holes 
were getting stopped, he thrust his fingers in, stirred up 
the settlings, and hastened matters in that way. 

His work was now ended ; the milk was ready for the 
city and the babies. 



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FOOD INSPECTION 1 59 

A bright high-school boy was talking about this mat- 
ter the other day, and he said : " Yes, that 's about 
the way it is ; but you see, on our farm we use wire 
screens first, and then we run the milk through eight 
layers of cheese cloth. That takes the microbes out, 
does n't it ? " 

" By no means," I answered. " Once in they stay, 
for they are small enough to go wherever milk can 
go. Straining simply takes out straw, hair, mud, and 
so on." 

One of the strong points about a model dairy is that 
men are careful to keep milk cold there. They know 
that the only way to prevent microbes from multiplying 
after they are once in the milk is to keep it as nearly 
ice cold as possible. This is done by packing ice around 
the can, not by putting it inside where it will do harm by 
adding water microbes to milk microbes, diluting the 
milk at the same time. 

The two styles of dairies teach the same lesson from 
opposite sides. 

Model dairies teach that : 

1. The cleaner the milk the fewer the 
microbes. 

2. The fresher the milk the fewer the 
microbes. 

3. The colder the milk the fewer the 
microbes. 



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l6o TOWN AND CITY 

Microbe dairies teach that : 

1. The more dirt the more microbes. 

2. The older the milk the more microbes. 

3. The warmer the milk (before it is 
cooked) the more microbes. 

In view of all this, the health department printed care- 
ful instructions about cleanliness, coolness, and pure 
milk. It sent these instructions in all directions, ordered 
railroad companies to keep cans of milk on ice as they 
carried them to the city, and set a standard of pure milk 
which I give in as few words as possible. 

1. Pure milk must taste sweet. 

2. It must not be weakened by water. 

3. Chemicals must not be put in it to pre- 
vent it from turning sour. 

4. It must hold no more than one million 
microbes per cubic centimeter. 

5. It must not be kept for sale in any 
place where people live and sleep, nor in any 
place which opens into such a room. 

6. It must not be skimmed before it is 
sold. 

To make sure that the milk the city gets is up to the 
standard, when it first arrives the milk inspectors meet 
it here and there at different stations in the city. Their 
work begins at four o'clock in the morning, for then it is 
that trains begin to come in with their precious load, — 



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FOOD INSPECTION 



i6l 



over twenty-five thousand cans of milk, and forty quarts 
in each can. This shows how much of the milk supply 
of New York City comes in by train. 

Some of it needs no examining, for it travels cold 
from clean farms that can be trusted. Other cans need 
careful testing, and 
whenever they fail to 
meet the standard they 
are seized and the own- 
ers fined. 

The health depart- 
ment of Rochester, 
New York, allows but 
100,000 microbes to 
each cubic centimeter 
of milk that is sold 
in the city. To make 
the quality even bet- 
ter during the summer 
months, when microbes multiply fastest and babies suf- 
fer most, there are special inspectors and special milk 
stations in different parts of the city. Here milk is sold 
so clean and so cold that the average number of microbes 
is only 10,000 for each cubic centimeter. To secure 
this, the city does its main work on a farm near by. On 
it each cow is healthy and clean ; each stable and each 
milkman is equally clean; while bottles ^nd cans are 




Microbes multiply in the Sunshine 



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l62 



TOWN AND CITY 



steamed and sterilized each time they are used. More 
than that, from the moment they are filled until the 
milk is sold they are closely packed in ice. 

No pasteurizing or boiling is done on this farm, for at 
all times, everywhere, clean, sweet milk is the best food 




Clean Milk for Rochester Babies 

a baby can have. Boiled or pasteurized milk is the next 
best thing. 

The diagram shows the results of this work in Roches- 
ter. Follow that slender line across the page and let 
your eye rest at each small, round circle. Now connect 



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FOOD INSPECTION 



163 



each with the figures which belong to it at the top and 
at the side of the diagram. Notice the year and the 
number of babies who died that year, and you will see 
what clean milk in Rochester has done for the death 
rate of city babies, — almost one thousand deaths in 





CITY OF ROCHESTER, N.Y. 
DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE. 
1882. Began Efficient Milk Inspection. 
1897. Municipal Milk Stations Established. 
190a Establlcilied a Municipal Standard of 100,000 Bacteria per 0.0. 




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The Milk Record of Rochester 
It shows how clean milk saved life 

1892 and less than five hundred in 1904. Yet during 
the intervening years the city increased in size by about 
thirty thousand people. Surely every intelligent mother 
in the land must be wishing that she could take her 
baby to Rochester to live. 

While trying to get pure milk, cities are also trying 
to get pure food of every kind. 



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1 64 TOWN AND CITY 

In June, 1905, Cleveland, Ohio, showed her zeal in 
this direction, for the inspectors then sent twfo thousand 
five hundred pounds of meat from the markets to the 
garbage plant. In May, 1906, the health officers were 
quite as much in earnest when they seized thirty-eight 
cattle, twenty-nine hogs, four sheep, and five calves, 
telling the owners that they were not fit to be killed 
and sold for food. 

New York City is so particular in this matter that, in 
1902, she destroyed over twelve million pounds of unfit 
food that various people were trying to sell. Boston does 
the same thing, and whenever a new market is opened 
in that city an inspector goes to the place and gives the 
owner a card stating the laws and penalties governing the 
business. With that as a beginning the same inspector 
often calls again to see whether the instructions are 
being obeyed. If they are not, he lets the law attend to 
the man, and this generally ends by improving him. 

Thus it is with city after city. Each is trying to pro- 
tect her citizens from spoiled meat and fish, poultry and 
oysters, vegetables, fruit, and milk. There is, in fact, 
a standard for every article of food we use, — for flour, 
sugar, coffee, tea, canned goods, honey, molasses, butter, 
maple syrup, and countless other things, and the duty 
of the inspectors is to see that what is sold matches 
what the law requires. 



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CHAPTER XXI 

EPIDEMICS AND THE DISCOVERY OF DISEASE 
MICROBES 

Before any human being had so much as seen a 
microbe or suspected the harm it can do, a deadly 
microbe disease was killing off silkworms in southern 
France by the hundred thousand every year. 

The serious side of the matter was that when silk- 
worms died at that rate whole villages of industrious 
Frenchmen were plunged into poverty. These people 
are so zealous in their silk-raising occupation that some- 
times the frames on which the worms live are distributed 
through a man's house from attic to cellar, while the man 
himself is as busy bringing in mulberry leaves by the arm- 
ful and the sackful for the worms to eat as the worms 
themselves are busy with their eating. 

Each day as these worms grow older they nibble 
away more persistently, until at last, when thousands 
of silkworms are eating in the same room, " the noise 
of their munching resembles the sound of rain falling 
upon thick bushes." 

No doubt this sound is like music to the ears of the 
owners, for the one important thing in the life of a 

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1 66 TOWN AND CITY 

silkworm is that it should have a good appetite. When 
this begins to fail its owner is in despair. 

It was this very thing, however, that happened in 
1849. Just when the worms ought to have been eat- 
ing the most they began to neglect their leaves ; they 
moved slowly and did not grow ; they also grew weaker, 
thousands died, and the eggs of those that lived either 
would not hatch or turned out sickly worms. 

Worst of all, when the disease appeared in any room 
there seemed to be no way of keeping it there ; it spread 
to the next room and the next, until all the worms in 
the house had it. Then from one house it traveled to 
another, and from village to village, until at last no region 
in the country escaped. Moreover, it was seen to be so 
deadly everywhere that the first sign of it in a single 
room gave any silk raiser a fright. He knew his case 
was hopeless, for with the disease once started nothing 
could save his worms or his business. 

There was, however, one plan that did work for a while. 
Many raisers sent to other countries for their eggs, — to 
Spain, to Italy, to Turkey. In 1853 these foreign eggs 
hatched well. The worms were vigorous ; they turned 
into beautiful cocoons that were sold to silk merchants 
for great sums of money, and everybody was encouraged, 
but only for a little while, for the epidemic was back 
again the year after, once more bringing discouragement 
to the silk raisers. 



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EPIDEMICS AND DISEASE MICROBES 



167 



More than that, it now spread to Italy, Spain, and 
Turkey. It reached every corner of Europe, until Japan 
was the only country in the world where healthy eggs 
could be found. 

Finally, in 1865, thirty-six hundred important silk 
raisers and merchants sent a petition to the senate of 
France, begging the gov- 
ernment to do something 
to help them. Fortunately, 
as those men turned their 
minds from one plan to 
another, some one thought 
of Louis Pasteur. 

He was a careful, scien- 
tific man, who knew how 
to use both his brains and 
his microscope, and he con- 
sented to move down into 
southern France and see 
what he could do to save 
the worms. Even before he arrived he heard some 
one speak of having discovered small particles in the 
body of the worm. He himself now examined the worms 
with his microscope and found the particles without 
the slightest trouble. 

For the sake of deciding what connection there was 
between the spots and the disease, he took two sets of 




Fkom a Silk woe m to 

A MoTtt 



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1 68 TOWN AND CITY 

eggs, — one laid by a moth without spots, the other by 
a spotted moth, — and raised them separately. Each set 
was hatched, ate leaves, turned into cocoons, came out 
of the cocoon as moths, laid eggs, and died. Meanwhile 
Pasteur watched these changes for several generations 
and learned four things: 

1. A moth without spots lays eggs without 
spots. 

2. Eggs without spots hatch worms with- 
out spots. 

3. A diseased moth lays diseased eggs. 

4. Diseased eggs always produce diseased 
worms. 

The four points taken together showed that spots and 
disease were the closest companions, though they did 
not show how the disease traveled from a grown-up dis- 
eased worm to a grown-up healthy worm. That was the 
next thing to look into. 

Since eating is the main occupation of worms, food 
experiments came first. Pasteur proposed to see if 
worms could take the disease by actually eating some of 
the spots. But the question was where to get those 
spots ; for no one knew of their being anywhere except 
in the bodies of the worms, and it hardly seemed as if 
there were any way to make a healthy worm eat a dis- 
eased worm, even if science did need to be helped along. 
Yet Pasteur was keen enough to think up a happy 



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EPIDEMICS AND DISEASE MICROBES 169 

device. He took a diseased worm, pounded it up with 
a little water, bought a small paint brush, dipped it 
into the worm mush, painted a few leaves with it, and 
gave them to his pet worms. 

They took hold without the slightest hesitation, nib- 
bled away diligently, and ate up the leaves without any 
fuss whatever. At the same time all the other healthy 
worms were eating unpainted leaves, and Pasteur wished 
to see whether there would be any difference in the 
health of the two sets. 

Day followed day ; each set continued as well as the 
other until finally twelve days had passed; then came 
the change. The painted-leaf eaters were not so well ; 
spots appeared in their bodies; they were languid and 
did not eat. After that, until they died, the history of 
those worms was like that of all other worms that had 
the disease. 

It was plain to Pasteur that he had a clear case. He 
saw that when a spotted worm was eaten by a healthy 
worm the disease went from one to the other. 

Nevertheless, to make the proof doubly sure, he tried 
the experiment in various ways, — on young worms and 
old worms, on big worms and little worms, and always 
the disease followed. He became so skilled in doing 
it that he knew exactly when a worm should have the 
disease, and whether it should appear in the worms 
themselves, in the egg, the chrysalis, or the moth. He 



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I70 TOWN AND CITY 

arranged all this by regulating the time and the manner 
of feeding them. Wherever he sent the disease there 
it went: either the eggs did not hatch, or the worms 
died, or the moths were diseased and laid diseased eggs. 

Of course all that Pasteur had learned thus far was 
that if healthy worms took diseased worm flesh into their 
bodies they woul<i have the disease themselves. He still 
needed to know how the disease generally went from 
worm to worm, for certainly, before this, no worm had 
ever had any chance to eat up his neighbor. Where, 
then, did this disease come from? By close watching 
and more experiments Pasteur now found that healthy 
worms took the disease even when they ate nothing 
worse than dusty leaves, or leaves that diseased worms 
had crawled over. This proved to him that what passed 
out of the body of a sick worm and either fell to the 
floor and turned to dust, or stuck to the leaf and stayed 
there, was full of something that gave the disease. It 
made the leaf as dangerous as if it had been Covered 
with crushed worm paint, and showed that healthy 
worms and diseased worms must never be allowed to 
live together on the same leaf. 

Next came the hook discovery. It seems that silk- 
worms have a way of helping themselves on with tiny 
hooks at the end of their feet. These hooks make little 
pricks wherever they fasten themselves, and the worm 
is quite as willing to hook himself across the back of a 



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EPIDEMICS AND DISEASE MICROBES 171 

friendly worm as across any leaf or stick that comes in 
its way. The misfortune was that when a sick worm 
pricked its way over a healthy worm something from 
its body was left in the tiny holes, and the healthy worm 
took the disease. 

In a way it was as if one worm had vaccinated the 
other, only in this case, instead of saving his life, the 
vaccination really killed him. Once more, therefore, it 
was plain that healthy and unhealthy silkworms must 
be kept apart. Certainly the problem was growing more 
and more serious; and with so many chances against 
them, how in the world were the healthy worms ever to 
escape ? Yet the silk business of the whole of Europe 
depended on the answer to the question. 

Fortunately Pasteur knew that during every silk- 
raising season all the worms hatch and die at about the 
same time. Between the seasons, there are no living 
worms, neither does anything in the dust live from one 
season to the next. It was clear, therefore, that all the • 
disease that was going to do any harm was tucked away 
in the tiny eggs and nowhere else. 

Since this was so, Pasteur saw that the only way to 
save the worms was never to allow a diseased egg to 
hatch. But who could ever tell which eggs were dis- 
eased and which were not.^^ And even if this could be 
done, who would ever be willing to take the time to 
separate the two kinds .f^ 

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172 TOWN AND CITY 

Really, however, the work was easier than it sounds ; 
for, as we already know, healthy moths are sure to lay 
healthy eggs. It also happens that those who raise silk- 
worms know perfectly well when any moth is ready to 
lay her eggs, and it was this fact that helped Pasteur to 
see a straight road out of the whole difficulty. 

He decided that when laying time came each moth 
should be put on a separate, small piece of white cloth, 
where she would lay her wonderful treasure of four or 
five hundred eggs. After the laying, each was to be 
fastened to her own bit of cloth near her own eggs and 
examined for spots when her turn came. If she was 
found to have them, she herself, her eggs, and the cloth 
on which she had laid them were to be burned at once 
for the sake of saving the lives of all the others. If, how- 
ever, she had no spots, her eggs were to be carefully 
kept for hatching. 

This method was so successful that it was soon 
adopted everywhere in France; and to-day, in all the 
silk-raising villages, just after the egg-laying season, 
hundreds of women and girls are busy crushing moths, 
examining them under the microscope, burning some of 
the white cloth nests of eggs, and carefully saving the 
others. Finally Pasteur knew that the spots were mi- 
crobes that multiplied, and through his discoveries he 
not only saved the silk industry of France but he also 
taught people how to study human epidemics and how 



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EPIDEMICS AND DISEASE MICROBES 173 

to fight them. His four great discoveries are indeed 
more important to men than to worms. 

1. There are such things as disease 
microbes. 

2. Disease microbes carry disease from 
one individual to another. 

3. The only way to learn how they do it is 
to make careful, scientific experiments. 

4. Successful experiments will show how 
to check an epidemic. 



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CHAPTER XXII 

SOME SAFEGUARDS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 

After Pasteur had discovered why it is and how it is 
that certain diseases travel fastest in crowded places, he 
made several other discoveries which taught men how 
to prevent epidemics in cities and how to save their lives 
in spite of microbes. 

His first patients were chickens that had cholera and 
sheep that had splenic fever, and in both cases he actu- 
ally used disease microbes to save their lives. To do 
this he took two drops of blood from a diseased animal, 
put each drop into a separate glass tube in a sort of 
beef-tea liquid, and let the microbes multiply there. 

If he wanted what he called weak microbes, he left his 
tube untouched for days or weeks, for he saw that the 
longer he left the microbes the weaker they grew. If, 
however, he wanted strong microbes, he used the liquid 
within a day or two after he had prepared it. 

In either case, when he was ready to use them he 
took a slender, needle-like syringe, drew a few drops of 
the liquid into it, and pricked them through the skin of 
a healthy animal. By many experiments he found that 
when he used strong microbes the animals died of the 

174 



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SOME SAFEGUARDS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 175 

disease soon afterwards, but that when he used the weak 
microbes first, stronger ones afterwards, and the strong- 
est ones last of all, the animals escaped with no illness 
whatever. 

Pasteur finally became so expert in this matter that 
he said he could either give sheep and cows splenic 
fever or save them from it, according as he used his 
microbes. 

The steps that led him to the discovery were so new 
and unexpected that when he finally announced the 
result to the Academy of Science in Paris, the entire 
body of learned men burst into loud applause. Some, 
however, wishing to see with their own eyes, asked 
Pasteur to give a public exhibition of his weak microbes, 
his strong microbes, and his sheep. 

He was glad to do this. He was also glad to accept 
fifty-nine sheep, ten cows, and one goat from an agricul- 
tural society, for by experimenting on these he was to 
show whether he could really do what he claimed. 

On the fifth day of May, 188 1, with many visitors on 
the ground to watch him, Pasteur separated twenty-four 
sheep, six cows, and his one goat from the rest of the 
flock. To these he gave a dose of his weakest microbes, 
injecting them under the skin with his slender syringe. 
The rest of the flock received none whatever. Again, 
on the seventeenth of May he gave the same sheep, 
cows, and goat a stronger set of microbes. Even yet. 



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176 TOWN AND CITY 

however, he did nothing to the other animals/ They 
were reserved for the final treatment. 

Then, on the last day of the month, he used the very 
strongest of his microbes not only on the animals already 
treated but also on twenty-five other sheep and on the 
four remaining cows. Each received the same dose so 
that all were treated alike. 

By this time the scientists, who watched the experi- 
ment were very much excited, for, of course, the question 
was which set of animals would suffer most, — those that 
had received nothing but strong microbes, or those that 
had had both kinds. 

Pasteur himself had no question about it. He knew 
that in some mysterious way, when weak, splenic-fever 
microbes go on ahead as a sort of advance guard into 
the blood of an animal, the body prepares itself to resist 
any sort of splenic microbes that may come afterwards. 
He was so sure of this that he dared to make a prophecy 
about it. He said that not one of the sheep that had 
started off with weak microbes would die ; that not one 
that had only strong microbes would live ; that the weak- 
microbe cows would escape entirely, while the others 
would all have the splenic fever and would perhaps die. 

He made that prophecy on the thirty-first of May, at the 
time that the strongest microbes were given. He also 

1 Ten sheep were set aside in the beginning, and from first to last these were 
not touched. The record does not explain the case of the goat. 



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SOME SAFEGUARDS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 177 

said that on the second of June the case would be decided. 
In the meantime, therefore, the strongest microbes were 
to do what they could to both sets of animals. 

When the day arrived, two hundred people were on 
hand to see what had happened. Doctors were there and 
newspaper men ; scientists, farmers, and senators. Some 
came believing and some came doubting; but all were 
ready to be convinced, and the proofs were before their 
eyes, for behold, each prophecy had come to pass. 
Twenty-four sheep and six cows were eating as calmly 
as if nothing had occurred. This was the set that had 
worked up from weaker to stronger microbes. Not so, 
however, with the rest of the flock, for of these twenty- 
one were dead already, three others were dying, the goat 
was dead, and the four cows had great swellings on their 
bodies and were too weak to eat. 

The report of this marvelous experiment spread far 
and wide, and cattle raisers everywhere were now filled 
with such hope for the lives of their sheep and their 
cows that, during 1881, thirty-three thousand of these 
animals were treated with weak microbes to protect them 
from splenic fever, while in 1882 the number jumped to 
four hundred thousand. Since that time it has become 
quite the regular practice for farmers in France to save 
their domestic animals by the microbe cure. 

For human beings in cities all this is most important, 
because it shows how we can conquer hydrophobia. 



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178 TOWN AND CITY 

In former times a man or child bitten by a mad dog 
could hardly expect to escape the disease; but those 
splenic-fever experiments led Pasteur to another great 
discovery. He never saw the hydrophobia microbe itself, 
but by the way the disease traveled from one to another 
he knew that it must be there and he treated it accord- 
ingly. Once more he worked on the plan of fighting 
the disease with microbes, and that is the cure to-day. 

A rabbit dies of hydrophobia. His spinal cord is then 
taken from the spine and dried for two weeks in a cool, 
dark room to weaken its power. It is then crushed to 
a powder, mixed with a salt solution to make it liquid, 
and pricked through the skin of the man or child who 
has been bitten. The bite of the dog has left the strongest 
kind of hydrophobia poison in the man's body, yet in 
some way the preparation made from the spinal cord of 
the rabbit is able to save the man from this awful disease. 

The treatment begins as soon as possible after the 
bite. The weakest dose is given first, with a stronger one 
every few days for two weeks afterwards. The strongest 
of all is then given and the patient is safe. 

Quite as wonderful as all this is the way horses help 
in saving children from diphtheria. During the past few 
years, in the midst of their experiments, scientific men 
have found that at the very moment when microbes are 
multiplying in the body, or for that matter in the liquids 
where they are being raised in the laboratory, they are 



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SOME SAFEGUARDS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 179 

also manufacturing different kinds of poisons which they 
spread around themselves. 

It happens, indeed, that each disease microbe has its 
own particular poison with which it does its own particu- 
lar mischief. It also turns out that in many cases these 
poisons, even when they are separated from the microbes, 
are as swift to kill a man or an animal as the microbes 
themselves can ever be. This is true of that quick, cruel 
disease, diphtheria. In truth, poison, or toxin as it is 
called, is one of the principal weapons that diphtheria 
microbes use. 

They reach the throat from the air, and often stay 
there harmless until the person has a cold or is not feel- 
ing well generally ; then they begin to multiply fast. 
At the same time they manufacture their own deadly 
toxin which enters the blood and travels to all parts of 
the body. The patient now has high fever, and unless 
something can be done at once to save his life, the chances 
are that he will die from the poisoning and from the 
stuff that is growing in his throat. 

Every year thousands of children in every land are 
killed in this way. At last, however, the remedy is at 
hand, for in 1890 Dr. Emil Behring announced his great 
discovery that the toxin of diphtheria itself can be used 
to save us from diphtheria. 

In Detroit, Michigan, as well as in New York and a 
few other large cities, a group of noble, healthy horses 



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l8o TOWN AND CITY 

spend their lives in clean stables, producing the remedy 
for us. Every day they are groomed and exercised, well 
fed, and treated like distinguished friends. 

Still they have to endure some discomfort, for when 
they first enter the service they receive, under the skin, 
a dose of toxin without any microbes in it. Every few- 
days after that they receive a larger dose in the same 
way, until at last they are immune; that is, it is now- 
impossible for them to take the disease. Indeed, when 
once immune they can take toxin enough at one time 
to kill several horses that are not used to it. 

They are immune because while they have been 
receiving the toxin into their bodies those same bodies 
have been manufacturing something that destroys its 
power. No one knows just what this is, or just what it 
does. We only know that after any particular horse is 
immune there is something in his blood that can be put 
under the skin of human beings to save them from diph- 
theria. This, therefore, is called antitoxin. 

After those horses have received enough toxin to 
make them immune the tables are turned, and they 
have to contribute some of their blood once in a while, 
for the sake of the antitoxin that men wish to get out 
of it. 

If we should visit the stables in Detroit where these 
antitoxin horses are kept, we should find each in his own 
special stall. We should also notice that each stall has 



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SOME SAFEGUARDS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 



l8l 



its own small blackboard on which is written the name or 
the number of the horse, the date when he received his 
last dose of toxin, and the date when he must yield his 
blood to those who need it. 

Everything is carefully done. The blood is taken from 
the neck of the animal, and he suffers no more than 
men used to suffer when they were bled for their health. 




Friends who raise the Antitoxin for Us 

This blood is then allowed to stand until it clots or 
separates. The watery part — the serum, as it is called 
— ^ holds the precious antitoxin which the body of the 
horse has manufactured. This is tested, filtered, put into 
small glass tubes in proper-sized doses, and sent here 
and there to save the children of the country from 
diphtheria. 



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l82 



TOWN AND CITY 



The discovery of this wonderful cure has changed 
the diphtheria record of the world. Formerly in New- 
York City forty out of every hundred who had the 
disease died of it ; now it kills not more than eight in 
each hundred. The truth is that the health department 
has worked hard for this result. In 1902 it divided the 
city into eight districts and appointed a special inspec- 
tor for each one of them. 
These men were on duty- 
day and night. When a 
case of diphtheria was 
reported to the depart- 
ment, it was at once tele- 






>• 







4 



j? 








^4; phoned on to the proper 
inspector, and he attended 



HfW^^ *^ to it without a moment's 



Diphtheria Microbes 



delay. 

Indeed, in a case of diph- 
theria, after the microbes 
begin to multiply, there must be no loss of time in put- 
ting the antitoxin into the body, for it is clear that the 
less toxin the microbes have had time to make, the more 
easily can the antitoxin help the body to get the upper 
hand. In fact, it is now a Hfe-and-death race between 
the two manufacturers. If the microbes can make toxin 
faster than the body can make antitoxin, they will win ; 
but if the body is the swifter manufacturer, and if, at 



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SOME SAFEGUARDS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 183 

the same time, it is helped by antitoxin from outside, it 
will be victorious over the toxin. 

For this reason everybody works fast with diphtheria. 
Fathers hurry to call the doctors or to send word to the 
health department; inspectors and doctors hasten to 
those who call them, and as soon as possible the anti- 
toxin is in the child's body, doing what it can to help 
conquer the foe. 

Antitoxin is then given to each person that has been 
exposed, for this astonishing substance not only over- 
comes the toxin which the microbes are already making, 
but, if it can have the start, it prevents those microbes 
from even beginning to make their deadly poison. 

In New York City the health department furnishes 
antitoxin free to all who need it. It is given through 
inspectors and doctors, and as a result of its use, thou- 
sands of young people have been kept alive. Antitoxin 
has saved them from diphtheria. 



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CHAPTER XXIII 

VACCINATION 

On a certain evening in June, 1905, in a certain 
lodging house in Cleveland, Ohio, one hundred and 
fifty men were either in their beds and bunks or were 
about to crawl into them, when five city doctors appeared 
and insisted on vaccinating every man among them. 

Crippled men and blind men, young men and old 
men, all were summoned and all had to submit. Some 
were willing and some were unwilling, but the doctors 
were firm. They worked fast, took arm after arm as 
the men marched past, and within two hours all were 
safely vaccinated and the doctors gone. 

The reason for the rush was that a man was down 

with smallpox in Rochester, New York, and he said 

that he had come from this particular lodging house in 

Cleveland. At once, therefore, the Rochester health 

officers telegraphed to the Cleveland health officers 

about it. They in turn telephoned to the doctors of the 

city, and no man among them delayed on the way for 

each one knew the danger. Each was, therefore, anxious 

to protect the men who had been exposed and to save 

the city from an epidemic. 

184 



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VACCINATION 185 

Unfortunately some of the men were ignorant enough 
to try to dodge the vaccination. They did not realize 
that the health department had actually been too good 
to them ; it had kept them safe so long that they had 
no idea of the fearful fate that comes to places that 
have no wall of vaccination around them. 

To understand this, citizens who object to vaccina- 
tion should have lived on Ponape, one of the Caroline 
Islands, in 1854. 

At that time a whaling vessel passed by, and a sailor 
with smallpox was sent ashore to die. His comrades 
sailed away and left him there. He died soon after- 
wards and was buried by the natives ; but they saved 
his clothes, put them on, lent them to each other, and 
for a while were as proud as peacocks are of their 
splendid tails. 

In the meantime, however, a medical missionary on 
the island did all he could to induce the natives to burn 
the clothes and not to wear them, but not one of them 
would give heed. " Surely the clothes are harmless," 
they said ; " we have as good eyesight as the missionary 
and we see nothing dangerous about them." 

That was in April, and then it was that the terrible 
history began. First a few were seized by smallpox, 
then others, and still others. All were ignorant: those 
who were ill lived and died with those who were well ; 
each took the disease from some one else, and no one 



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1 86 TOWN AND CITY 

tried either to protect himself or to protect his friend. 
Thus the flame was fanned on every side, so that by 
the middle of May the scourging epidemic was sweeping 
across the island like a prairie fire. 

The missionary had vaccine matter, but it was too 
old to be worth anything. He therefore determined to 
try inoculation on himself first and then on the natives. 
This means that he scratched the skin on his own arm, 
took a bit of pus from one of the sores of a man sick 
with smallpox, and rubbed it into his scratch. 

If he had not already been protected by vaccination, 
this inoculation would have given him a slight attack 
of smallpox and made him safe from the disease for the 
rest of his life. As it was, however, he found that his 
American vaccination was still protecting him. 

He now turned his attention to the natives. At first 
they were afraid to trust him. They said that a foreign 
God had sent a foreign disease to kill them, and they did 
not see what good a foreign man could do in such a case. 
A few, however, dared let the missionary inoculate them, 
and when others saw that these escaped they tried it too. 

There was reason in this, for on every side whole vil- 
lages of men, women, and children were groaning and 
suffering and dying together. 

To escape their fate those who were still well now 
flocked to the missionary by the dozen and the fifty each 
day. They came walking through the valleys and sailing 



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. VACCINATION 1 87 

in their canoes from every village on the island, — old 
men, and babies in their mother's arms, young men, and 
grandmothers too, all came together. Sometimes the 
babies screamed with fright, but their mothers held them 
firmly while they were inoculated ; for by this time they 
were sure that fright for a baby is riot half so bad as 
smallpox. 

The epidemic spent six months working its way across 
the island. When it started there were ten thousand 
people on Ponape, and, in spite of all that inoculation 
had done, when the six months were over half of those 
merry, ignorant, brown-skinned people were dead and 
buried ; and one sailor with smallpox wa§ the cause of 
it all. While it lasted the missionary wrote, " I have 
never witnessed such wretched and harrowing misery." 
And when it was over he wrote again : " We still hear 
but too distinctly the groaning and screeching that 
echoed through whole neighborhoods of beautiful bread- 
fruit groves. We can give no adequate idea of the deadly 
gloom that hung over us during those dreadful months." 

It is from such woe and suffering that vaccination 
saves our cities. In these days, however, people are, as 
a rule, so well protected by this vaccination that even 
good citizens sometimes grow thoughtless about the 
very thing that protects them ; but the starting of a 
smallpox epidemic is sure to frighten them into vacci- 
nation again. 

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1 88 TOWN AND CITY 

New York City shows this by her records. Notice 
the table ; it starts with 1 2 people who had the disease 
in 1898 and climbs steadily to 11 98 in 190 1. Of that 
number 410 died. 

Date 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 

Cases of smallpox 12 54 132 1198 755 

In December, 1901, there were four times as many 
cases as in November of the same year. Fortunately, 
however, the health department of the city now became 
so thoroughly alarmed that, in 1902, it appointed two 
hundred vaccinators for special service. 

It also sent letters to all the large manufacturers and 
business men, saying that the city would not only be 
glad to send a vaccinator to any shop or factory, " at any 
time of day or night," but that nothing would be charged 
for the work done, and that even the vaccine matter 
would be given free of charge. 

In fact, all the department asked was that each un vac- 
cinated citizen would have the kindness to lend his arm 
to the city for a minute or two and allow it to be vacci- 
nated. The health officers knew that any arm lent for 
that purpose would do more for the protection of the 
man himself and of the city than if it carried a gun for 
the shooting of some visible enemy. 

The truth, of course, is that in every city it is the invi- 
sible foe that does more harm than any visible foe can 



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VACCINATION 189 

ever do ; and in the case of smallpox the arm of a child 
is as strong a defender as the arm of the strongest man. 

Besides sending letters and circulars of information in 
all directions, the health department ordered doctors and 
inspectors to report each case of smallpox they found; 
and within forty-eight hours after the report came in the 
department proposed to vaccinate every man, woman, 
and child who lived within two blocks of the infected 
spot. To do this, the whole company of vaccinators was 

sonietimes rushed to the same part | | | | | [ 

of the city at the same time. 

Special inspectors visited every 



New York lodging house once ~] | ' | [ | f" 
a w?ek. They even went to the M infected House 

bedrooms, when this seemed to be vaccination is required 
nec^ssary^ wakened people, vaccinated them, and gave 
them certificates to that effect. These certificates were 
necessary just then, for the city had made a rule that no 
man should be allowed to spend two consecutive nights 
in any city lodging house unless he had a certificate 
stating that he had been vaccinated recently. 

Thus it was that New York City carried on her small- 
pox war. Her officers were doctors, inspectors, and vac- 
cinators, while her private soldiers were of every age 
and size ; for each citizen who had been vaccinated was 
in the army of defense, and vaccine was the powerful 
weapon. 



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IQO 



TOWN AND CITY 



So much was done that from one hundred and 
ninety cases in January, 1902, the number dwindled to 
nine in December. It had taken two hundred vaccin- 
ators six months to do the work, and during that time 
they had vaccinated eight hundred thousand citizens. 



^ 




i 




\ 


1) .1 



They raise Vaccine to save us from Smallpox 

This is the way cities protect themselves in these 
days. The very first discovery of how to save by vac- 
cination was made by Dr. Jenner, an Englishman, in 
1796. He saw that milkmen often had sores on their 
hands, which they caught from the cows they milked; 
he also noticed that such men were as safe from small- 
pox as if they had been inoculated ; and by putting two 
and two together he concluded that if a milkman can be 



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VACCINATION 191 

saved by accident through sores on the cow he milks, 
it ought to be possible to save other men on purpose 
through the same sores on the same cow. That was his 
great discovery. He called the pus " vaccine " because 
vcLcca is the Latin name for " cow." Since that time men 
have found that to be perfectly safe from smallpox they 
need to be vaccinated about once in seven years. 

To make sure that the vaccine they use is as pure as 
possible,. they raise it on special calves that are kept for 
the purpose. The calves shown in the picture live in 
Detroit, Michigan. They belong to the same company 
that owns the antitoxin horses. 



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CHAPTER XXIV 

THE ENEMY OF THE CITY, — TUBERCULOSIS 

When the steamboat Slocum was burned on East 
River in 1904, and when nine hundred merry excursion- 
ists were either burned to death or drowned in a single 
afternoon, the entire country was filled with horror. 
Newspapers used huge headlines; teachers, preachers, 
doctors, and lawyers talked of criminal neglect and 
wicked waste of life; while New Yorkers themselves 
said that death from a preventable cause like that must 
never happen again. 

Now notice these other facts and compare the situation. 

During that same year (1904) in the same city of New 
York, instead of nine hundred who died by fire and 
water, ten thousand other men, women, and children 
died of that other preventable cause, tuberculosis. Not 
only was this the case in New York, but in the United 
States as a whole one hundred and fifty thousand human 
beings died of tuberculosis that year, and in the world 
itself perhaps a million. 

Strange to say, however, in this case neither news- 
papers nor citizens grew very much excited, probably 

for two reasons : 

192 



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THE ENEMY OF THE CITY, — TUBERCULOSIS 193 

1. Few people know what the awful death 
record is. 

2. Fewer yet know that tuberculosis can 
be prevented. 

The fact is that until 1882 no one knew either how 
the disease travels or how to cure it. At that time, 
however, Dr. Robert Koch found the 
microbe that gives tuberculosis, and 
through his discovery the death record 
of the world will be changed forever. 

He examined the microbe in his 
laboratory under his microscope, no- 

, . , - - T 1 • Tubercle Bacilli 

ticed its Size and shape, studied its _, . , 

\ Three thousand put end 

habits, watched it multiply, found out to end win measure one 

what kills it, and also what makes it ^^^^ 
grow faster. He did all this, knowing as well as we do 
that every point he learned about it would help to save 
the lives of men. Here are a few of his facts packed 
closely together: 

1. The real name of the microbe is tuber- 
cle bacillus.^ 

2. It is small and slender like a tiny rod. 

3. Three thousand of these microbes put 
end to end will measure one inch. 

4. Each separate one of them is a sepa- 
rate plant. 

1 The plural of "bacillus" is "bacilli." 

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194 TOWN AND CITY 

5. Each multiplies by dividing. 

6. The only place where they can mul- 
tiply is in the bodies of men and animals, 
or in laboratories where scientists raise 
them. 

7. After they leave the body they live, 
but apparently they cannot multiply. 

8. They live best in damp, dark places. 

9. In such places they live anywhere 
from a few weeks to two years. 

10. Bright sunshine kills them in a few 
hours. 

11. Boiling kills them at once. 

12. Cold does them no harm. 

1 3. They can live and float around in the 
driest dust. 

14. They may give tuberculosis to any 
part of the body. 

15. They give it to the lungs most often. 

16. Tuberculosis of the lungs is what we 
call consumption. 

The discovery of all these facts, one by one, was excit- 
ing to every doctor, every scientist, and every consump- 
tive who heard about them ; for each one knew that a 
turning point had come in the history of the disease, and 
that there was hope now for thousands of people who 
Were hopeless before. 



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THE ENEMY OF THE CITY, — TUBERCULOSIS 195 

It was also clear that, from the highest to the lowest, 
from the richest to the poorest, from the wisest to the 
most ignorant, all sorts of people were exposing others 
to the disease every day, and that each one was blame- 
less ; for until Koch's great discovery no one knew the 
facts about the tubercle bacillus. Now, however, various 




im 113 1^ 131 va n*c vs iw 133 Ki vta iMM\a\vni Hi w HCi i« w ini^ i;.ii^i:«itJB| wn im 
Cherry Street 

••Lung Block" 

The shaded parts show courts and air shafts. Each letter stands for one case of 
consumption reported since 1894. All the "a's" belong to 1894, the "b's" to 
1895, *^® "c's" to 1896, etc., up to 1903 

earnest men and women learned these facts by heart 
and studied the history of tuberculosis in cities. 

They found that, as a rule, there is more consump- 
tion in the crowded parts of a city than anywhere else, 
and that even here there is the greatest difference in 
special houses and special rooms. This was the case 
with what is called " Lung Block " in New York City. 
Here during nine years two hundred and sixty-five cases 
were reported to the health department, and very many 



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196 TOWN AND CITY 

more were unreported. Single rooms also told their 
sad stories. 

Mr. Ernest Poole, who has studied the subject 
thoroughly, gives the report of one of these rooms for 
seven years. He says it is on the third floor, looking 
down into a court, and that in it people died of consump- 
tion steadily, one after the other. 

1. A blind Scotchman, in 1894, ^^^ con- 
sumption, went to the hospital, and died 
there. 

2. His daughter had consumption and 
died. 

3. One year later a Jew was taken ill there 
* and died in the summer. 

4. A German woman took the disease, 
died, and left her husband there. 

5. An Irishman was the victim. He 
worked hard, caught the disease, fought 
against it bravely, but died in 1901. 

Another house on the East Side of the city has dark 
halls where you must grope your way about ; seventy 
small rooms, with almost no outside air and light, and 
an air shaft partly filled with rubbish and filth. One 
hundred and fifty people live in that house and die fast 
of consumption. In the middle apartment, on the second 
floor, five families were lodged, one after the other, for 
four years. One of the first family died, two from the 



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THE ENEMY OF THE CITY, — TUBERCULOSIS 197 

second, and one from the third, while two members of the 
fourth family died in the hospital after leaving the place. 

At the last report a fifth family of eight persons, was 
living in the same rooms, and it Ts hardly to be supposed 
that they will all escape the fate of the others, yet after 
they have lived there for a while, after one or two of 
them have died there of consumption and the rest of the 
family have been frightened away, other people will visit 
the rooms. They will look around and will notice noth- 
ing more objectionable than darkness, dirt, and close 
air. They will discover no microbes, will suspect noth- 
ing, will agree to pay the rent, and will come to the rooms 
to live; they will not know that, instead of long life 
there, the chances are that some of them have come 
to those rooms to die and not to live. 

Now how does it happen that, over and over again, 
after there has been one death from consumption in a 
house other cases are almost sure to follow, and then 
still others again, for years and years afterwards ? 

The whole explanation is in the power of the microbe, 
the tubercle bacillus itself. Those who examine the 
room can, of course, see no sign of these microbes, yet 
there may be millions of them in the dust on every side. 
They may be lodged in the cracks of the floor, may be 
clinging to the walls and the ceiling, or may be hidden 
in the folds of the curtains. Often all they need is to be 
stirred up by a broom that has not been dampened, or 



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198 TOWN AND CITY 

to be flourished about with a feather duster; for they 
are thus tossed into the air and are ready to do their 
mischief. 

As we learned in Good Health dry dusting is a 
calamity to those who live in any house, for it simply 
lifts the microbes from the spot where they are quiet and 
harmless, and scatters them in the air where, until they 
settle again, they threaten all who breathe it. Damp 
dusters are therefore necessary, and wet sawdust or 
torn-up damp paper scattered on the floor before sweep- 
ing will keep down these microbes. 

It is not in tenement houses alone that these microbes 
are found, but any room, however richly furnished, is 
able to protect them if they are once scattered in it, while 
deep velvet and plush are fine shelters for them. After 
microbes once reach such a room, if care is not taken 
to disinfect it and kill them, they will live there for 
months and even for two years. 

The very nature of the microbe explains all this. It 
has no mind. It makes no plans. It simply lives on 
when nothing kills it, and multiplies when it finds a com- 
fortable home. Yet it never goes hunting for a home, 
for it cannot move about on its own account. On the 
contrary, if it is in the air, the wind may drive it any- 
where, and it will stay where it is tossed until something 
starts it moving again. It is so small that a man may 
breathe it with the air. It may escape all the cilia and 



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THE ENEMY OF THE CITY, — TUBERCULOSIS 199 

the mucus of the air passages, and safely reach the spot 
where it grows the best, the lungs of a human being. 

Here everything is favorable. The place is warm and 
moist, the delicate tissue is good ground to grow in, and 
the microbe begins to multiply promptly. 

Yet there is another side to the situation. The lungs 
themselves seem to make a protest. They like the microbe 
no better than a human eye likes a bit of cinder. At once, 
therefore, certain cells of the lungs hurry to the spot, 
surround the microbe, and try to build themselves into a 
wall about it. In a way it is a sort of contest, and at last 
the multiplying microbes and the cells are bunched 
together in a hard lump called a tubercle. 

Sometimes the cells of the lungs are vigorous enough 
to fasten the microbes up so securely that they cannot 
multiply. In this case they become harmless and the 
man does not have consumption. At other times the 
microbes prove to be the stronger of the two. The tuber- 
cles then increase, the man's lungs gradually become 
useless, — his whole body being also poisoned by the 
multiplying microbes, — and finally he dies. 

The danger to other folks comes before that. It seems 
that as each tubercle grows larger the center of it softens, 
and the man coughs it up if he can. This is the sputum 
so full of danger. Often it has a yellow color and is 
full of the microbes themselves. The worse off a man is, 
the more he coughs and expectorates ; while the more he 



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200 



TOWN AND CITY 



expectorates, the more living, dangerous microbes he 
sends into the world. 

Those who know about it say that a man with con- 
sumption may expectorate two or three billion tubercle 
bacilli every twenty-four hours* Such a man may wet 
his handkerchief with the sputum ; he may get it on 









Males 










Females 






GOO 


500 


400 


300 


200 


100 






100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


Under 5 












H 


■ 












5-9 












1 


1 












JO-14 












1 


■ 












16-19 










■ 


■■ 


^ 


■ 










20-24 

25-34 

35-44 

45-54 

55-64, 

5 and over 
600 


500 




1 




^ 


■■■ 


^ 


^ 


■ 




400 


oOO 


















• 
300 






























"" 












"^ 




■ 
■ 


400 


coo 


200 


100 


r^ 




100 


200 



600 
Under 5 

5-9 

10-14 

15-19 

20-24 

25-84 

35-44 

45-54 

S5-6A 

Go and over 
600 



Mortality of Consumption in New York City in 1900 

The black bars show the number of deaths for each 100,000 living citizens of the 

same age 

the sheets and clothing ; and there, as anywhere else, it 
dries, flakes off, flies about, and carries danger. 

Strange to say, in cities the greatest danger is for 
people between fifteen and forty-five years of age. The 
two diagrams show the case for New York. In one of 
these notice the black bars that grow longer for certain 
years, and then shorter again as the age increases ; in 



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THE ENEMY OF THE CITY, — TUBERCULOSIS 2OI 

the other notice the circles which show the number of 
deaths of men and women between the ages of twenty 
and forty-four ; also the great dark section which shows 
the proportion that died from tuberculosis. 

If consumption, a preventable disease, had been pre- 
vented in New York City in 1900, that whole dark 



20 — 20 years 



) — 44 years 





The Death Record of New York City 

Each disease according to its proportion of the whole. The large, dark space 
stands for tuberculosis 

space would stand for living men and women who were 
healthy, happy, and busy at the end of 1900. Instead, 
those citizens all died at the age when they should have 
been working most busily. 

Instead of tuberculosis of the lungs young children 
are more apt to have tuberculosis of the bones, which 
gives them crooked backs and hip disease. This is often 
cured, as the chapter on hospitals shows. 



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202 TOWN AND CITY 

Fortunately, however, no one inherits any kind of 
tuberculosis. To be sure, children of consumptive par- 
ents often have it, but they have every chance to take it 
after they are born; for they may live in the same house 
with their careless, consumptive parents, may touch the 
same things, breathe the same microbe-laden air every 
day, and may even creep around on the floor, where 
dust and microbes are thickest. Worse yet, without 
intending the slightest harm, those parents may even 
kiss their children on the lips. They do not know that 
this should never be done. 

With thousands of careless citizens coughing and 
expectorating every day for months and for years, it is 
easy to understand how streets and houses, rooms and 
people, all become infected ; for each new case of a per- 
son who is careless with his sputum means more microbes 
to shift about, and at a moment's notice, they are ready 
to go back into the lungs of any human being who 
breathes them. After that the vigor of those lungs them- 
selves is the only thing that can save a man. 

We see, therefore, that there is no question about the 
mischief which tubercle bacilli can do. Just as leaves 
painted with one kind of microbe give disease to silk- 
worms that eat them, and as typhoid microbes in drink- 
ing water may give typhoid fever to those who drink it, 
so it is that the microbes of consumption in the dust of 
the air may give consumption to those who breathe it. - 



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CHAPTER XXV 

WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS 

It is as true to-day as it ever was that the person who 
breathes dust loaded with tubercle bacilli is in danger of 
tuberculosis, and that the only way to escape the danger is 
to keep the lungs healthy and not to breathe such dust. 

Yet how shall we keep from doing this ? 

Careless people leave their deadly sputum in crowded 
rooms, cars, theaters, stations, and saloons. It then passes 
through all the stages of drying, being crushed, turned 
to powder, and getting into the air; and afterwards, 
in each of those places, people breathe the air thought- 
lessly. In New York City a man breathes anywhere 
from ten to four hundred microbes a minute, according 
to the place he is in; and the larger the number the 
greater the chance that tubercle bacilli are among them. 

When, therefore, you see a man expectorate carelessly 
in public you have a right to say to yourself: "One thing 
is plain — either that man is absolutely ignorant or abso- 
lutely selfish ; either he does not know the laws of health, 
the laws of the microbe, and the laws of the city against 
spitting, or he is willing to run the risk of giving a deadly 

disease to his fellow-citizens." 

203 

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204 TOWN AND CITY 

Of course it is true that saliva without tubercle bacilli 
in it can do no harm ; but cities know, as we do, that 
what a well man does the ill man is sure to do. For 
this reason laws against spitting cover every citizen, 
young and old, well or ill. Many cities post their laws in 
cars, stations, and all public places, and they enforce them 
or not according to their zeal for the welfare of their 
citizens. Here is a New York notice: 

Spitting on the floor of this car is a misdemeanor. J>5oo.oo fine or 
imprisonment for one year, or both, may be the punishment therefor. 

The city is so much in earnest that men in tall silk 
hats as well as those in shabby derbys have been fined 
for breaking that law. The truth is that New York City 
leads the country in this tuberculosis war. Moreover, 
she has two great branches to her fighting army: 

1. The health department of the city. 

2. The Committee on the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis for the Charity Organization 
Society. 

The triple motto for both divisions and for each 
separate soldier seems to be: 

1. Tuberculosis is preventable; we will 
prevent it. 

2. Tuberculosis spreads ; we will check it. 

3. Tuberculosis can be cured; we will 
cure it. 



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WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS 205 

In carrying out this motto the city has sent inspec- 
tors to infected rooms, has ordered houses to be pulled 
down because they were not fit to live in, streets to be 
widened and cleaned, parks to be increased, knowing all 
the while that there are just two ways to save a city. 

1. By destroying the tubercle bacillus. 

2. By making the bodies of citizens strong 
enough to resist them. 

The health department does two other things : 

1. It asks city doctors to report every case 
of consumption which they find. 

2. It offers to examine, free of charge, any 
specimen of sputum that is sent to the city 
laboratory. 

Every doctor in the land knows how important both 
these points are, for the secret of curing consumption is 
to discover it when it first begins, and the only possible 
way to do this is to examine the sputum for tubercle 
bacilli. 

Tuberculosis of the lungs is really somewhat like a 
fire in a lumber yard. If the fire is discovered when it 
first starts, a single pail of water will dash it out; but if it 
is left until the whole lumber yard is blazing, even the fire 
department cannot be of any help. 

So too with tuberculosis. Three quarters of the cases 
found early and taken care of are cured, while the cure 
itself is often as simple as the fire cute, although in 



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206 TOWN AND CITY 

the case of consumption four things are needed instead 
of one: 

1. Fresh air from morning until night and 
from night until morning. 

2. Sunshine. 

3. Wholesome food with an abundance of 
fresh milk and eggs. 

4. Rest for body and mind. 

If the patient discovers the disease soon after he takes 
it, and if he can get those four things, he will probably 
recover ; if he cannot get them, he will probably die. 

Those who understand tuberculosis best speak very 
positively about using medicines for it. They say : 

1. No medicine has yet been found that 
will cure consumption. 

2. Advertised medicines often contain 
alcohol, which hastens consumption. 

3. No person with consumption can afford 
to run the risk of taking any advertised 
medicine. 

4. In taking medicine a consumptive should 
go by the advice of a good doctor. 

Then too, from first to last, they should seek those 
four best things, — fresh air, sunshine, wholesome food, 
and rest ; but these are often hard to get. 

When men and women who have consumption are 
crowded into dark rooms of towering tenement houses in 



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WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS 207 

such a city as New York, how are they to get fresh air 
twenty-four hours a day ? When they have dark closets 
for living rooms, how are they to find their sunshine? 
When they have little money, how can they afford to buy 
the freshest eggs, the freshest milk, and an abundance of 
wholesome food? When they need to work for daily 
bread, how can they stop to take rest enough for body 
and mind ? 

The health department of New York City tries to 
answer these questions by giving help to citizens who 
need it. Some are sent to pleasant places in the country, 
others receive fresh eggs and milk in their own homes, 
and still others are cared for by the dispensaries and hos- 
pitals of the city. At the same time, directions are sent 
out by the hundred thousand printed pages, telling citi- 
zens what the danger is, how they may protect them- 
selves from it, and what they must do when they find 
that they have the disease. 

In 1902 New York doctors reported thirteen thousand 
new cases of tuberculosis, and in 1904, by adding new 
cases to old cases, there were found to be at least thirty 
thousand consumptives in the city. 

Since this is so many more than the health department 
can take care of, each separate citizen needs to know 
what he can do for himself. The wisest of them will see 
to it that windows are open in their homes, their shops, 
and their schoolhouses. They will keep them open by 



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2o8 TOWN AND CITY 

night as well as by day, for they will know that less 
dust is being stirred up at night and that night air is, 
therefore, the best air to be had. 

At the same time, they will make sure that their 
bodies are warmly covered when they sleep in cold rooms 
full of fresh air. A quick, inexpensive way to get extra 
covering is to sew newspapers between blankets. Paper 
does, in fact, keep cold out so well that in some places 
paper blankets are manufactured, and they can be bought 
by the dozen for very little money. Keeping warm 
enough and breathing fresh air must go hand in hand. 

In a city even hospitals have trouble in giving a man 
all the air he needs. Windows are kept open and reclin- 
ing chairs are put on the roof for certain patients to use. 
Other patients breathe fresh air even in bed, for the cot 
itself, with the man on it, is thrust through an open win- 
dow into the air and sunshine. Other devices help, but 
a sanatorium or a tent in the country is best of all. 

The United States and Canada have thirty-eight such 
places, distributed in every climate from Maine to Florida 
and Hawaii. Some are called hospitals, others sanatoria, 
and still others tent colonies, and it is these last that 
give the most air and the most hope. Doctors recom- 
mend them, saying that if ten hours of fresh air are a 
help, twenty-four hours will help still more. 

Some consumptives go even farther than tents and 
actually sleep out of doors in midwinter. 



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WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS 



209 



Mr. Irving Fisher says that he did this when the tem- 
perature was ten degrees below zero. He also says that 
in the winter of 1904, in the Adirondack Cottage Sana- 
torium, six people slept outdoors when the temperature 
was thirty degrees below zero. They had two or three 
mattresses under them, warm blankets and comforters 




Fresh Air in a City 

over them, heavy night clothes about them, and also 
woolen " head gear " with an opening for the nose. 
. Each person knew that the more fresh air he could 
get the more chance he had to live. It even seemed as 
if the colder the air the better he felt. 

Thus the war against tuberculosis goes successfully 
on, and all good citizens are turning into energetic 
fighters in the army. 



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2IO 



TOWN AND CITY 



A few years ago no one protested when a man left 
his saliva on the sidewalk or floor of a car or station. It 
was so common that almost no one noticed the spitting. 
Now, however, the man who spits is seen by a dozen 
different people at once, and each one looks upon him as 
either a deserter from the camp of good citizens or as a 
friend of the enemy. 







1 


^^FSV^nr IB 


^MW^^-^^ 



A Tent Colony 
Air and sunshine to cure consumption 

For his own sake, therefore, as well as for the sake of 
his city, each loyal citizen should practice the following 
rules of prevention. By so doing he will prove his loyalty. 

1. Never spit in a place where sputum may 
dry and get into the air. 

2. Use paper or cloth and burn the sputum 
before it dries, or else use a spittoon that 
has water in it to prevent the microbes from 
drying and floating around in the air. Such 
spittoons should be properly cleaned. 

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WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS 2ri 

3. If there is a persistent cough and a good 
deal of sputum, tell the doctor about it. He 
will have the sputum examined. 

4. Obey the laws of health, that is, breathe 
deeply, have plenty of air and sunshine, 
wholesome food and sleep, be clean, exercise 
faithfully, and be careful not to take cold. 

Consumptives who follow these rules are not in danger 
of giving the disease to others. They may live under the 
same roof with them, work side by side at the same bench, 
breathe the satpe air from day to day, and yet, from first 
to last, if they destroy every drop of their sputum, other 
people are not in danger. As tubercle bacilli never fly 
away from a damp surface, they stay in the throat and 
air tubes of a consumptive and do not get into his breath 
unless he breathes hard or sneezes. If he does either of 
those things, he should hold a cloth before his mouth 
and burn it immediately, or have it boiled. 

Any citizen with a vigorous body is best able to resist 
every sort of disease microbe. To secure this body, let 
each of us learn to shun what have been called the five 
tuberculosis D's, — dirt, darkness, dampness, dust, and 
drink. Let us also practice the golden rule of the anti- 
tuberculosis leagues : 

Don't give consumption to others. 

Don't let others give consumption to you. 

In this great anti-tuberculosis war cities are sure to be 
victorious in the end, but how soon the end will come 

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212 TOWN AND CITY 

depends on whether the children of our cities under- 
stand how serious the danger is, and whether they are 
ready to help fight ft. 

Since this book was written the Maryland Association 
for the Prevention and Relief of Tuberculosis has been 
through an exciting campaign. Its rally call was, " Will 
you help build the fence ? " And for twenty-three days 
this mystic query appeared in large letters on every 

street car in Baltimore, and 
on nearly every blank wall ; 
even the ash cans did not 
escape. At first there was 
curiosity on the part of 



WILL YOU 

HELP 

BUILD THE 

FENCE 

? 



those who saw the sign ; next came interest ; and when 
the meaning of the question slipped out, when all knew 
that it meant a " fence " of prevention to protect citizens 
against consumption, there was such enthusiasm that, in 
less than three weeks, ten thousand dollars were raised 
for the use of the Association during 1907. 

Such an experience as this shows one of the ways in 
which cities north and south, east and west, are already 
preparing to attack the enemy. It also proves that we 
have reason to expect to be successful in our united 
warfare against tuberculosis. 



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CHAPTER XXVI 

CITY HEALTH AND ALCOHOL 

An intelligent American trained nurse was speaking 
of her work in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. 
She said : 

Yes, I was there three months. I spent my whole time taking care 
of typhoid patients, and I saw what alcohol did for the poor fellows. 
I remember three cases in one week. They were all soldiers, they all 
had typhoid fever, and they all had to be operated upon. 

The first was a fine young fellow twenty-five years old, who had 
never smoked or used alcohol. He was so near dying that it hardly 
seemed as if we could get him to the operating table alive. Still the 
doctors tried it as a last chance, and sure enough, he began to get well 
almost as soon as the operation was over. The second was in the habit 
of drinking whenever he had a chance. The third drank once in a 
while. Neither of these seemed so very sick, and it looked as if they 
ought to recover. Nevertheless, the drinker died the day after the 
operation, and the moderate drinker three days later. 

The doctors who examined the bodies said that in both cases 
the heart and intestines were so damaged by alcohol that it would 
have been a marvel if the men had recovered. You see, sometimes 
we. really have to use a little stimulant to pull a tnan over a crisis, 
but if he has the alcohol habit, a little won't do him any good, and 
if we give him much, he is so weak that he *s almost sure to die 
from it. 

213 

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214 TOWN AND CITY 

" What do you do then ? " we asked. 

" Nothing," she answered. " There 's really nothing 
we can do; we have to let him die." 

This seems bad enough and sad enough, but in such 
an important matter as this no one should depend upon 
the judgment of any one person. Fortunately for us, 
scientists have looked into the subject of alcohol and 
health most carefully. 

Professor Guttstadt of Berlin has studied the record 
of the Gotha Life Insurance Company, and the Prussian 
government has published these records in the Klinishen 
Jahrbuch for 1904. It seems that Professor Guttstadt 
looked up the causes of death of men over twenty-five 
years of age, and he learned that in Prussia one hun- 
dred and sixty-one people out of every thousand die of 
tuberculosis. 

He then wanted to know in which occupation there 
was the greatest number of deaths from tuberculosis. 
So he compared again, and found that: 

Of every 1000 bartenders who die, 556 have tuberculosis 

" u t< brewers " " 345 " " 

** " " school-teachers" " 143 " " 

" " " physicians " " 113 " " 

« (( « clergymen " " 76 " •* 

The explanation of the death rate is plain enough. 
People expectorate more in saloons than anywhere else, 
and just there, too, they are specially careless as to where 



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CITY HEALTH AND ALCOHOL 215 

the saliva goes. Sometimes it gets into a receptacle that 
may tip over afterwards. Sometimes the half-intoxicated 
man cannot see straight enough to use any receptacle at 
all, and therefore uses the floor instead. In any case, no 
matter how it gets there, saliva on the floor, getting dry, 
being stepped on, turning to powder, floating into the 
air with tuberculosis microbes in it, is a danger to all 
who breathe in the room, and to bartenders most of all, 
because they stay there longest. 

Yet air is not the only carrier of disease. In most 
saloons the glasses, instead of being scalded after each 
drinker, are simply rinsed in cold water, and microbes 
from the lips that have just used the glass are not killed 
before the next man puts the same glass to his lips. 
Many diseases travel in this way from mouth to mouth, 
but, not suspecting it, people drink on most carelessly. 

Between 1847 ^^^ 1849 a great cholera epidemic in 
Glasgow attracted so much attention that Professor 
Adams studied it carefully for the sake of telling the 
people how to protect themselves. He discovered that 
of those who used alcohol and caught cholera ninety-one 
out of every hundred died, and of those who did not 
use alcohol and had cholera nineteen out of every 
hundred died. 

He also noticed that during the epidemic most of the 
new cases came after a holiday or Sunday, when people 
had been doing special drinking, and from what he saw, 



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2i6 TOWN AND CITY 

he was so sure about the share which alcohol had in 
spreading the disease that he said the sign over every 
saloon ought to be, " Cholera for sale here." 

Dr. Thomas, in Strassburg, was so much interested in 
the same subject that, having no epidemic to follow, he ex- 
perimented on rabbits with alcohol and cholera microbes. 
In doing this he found that when the little creatures had 
been dosed with alcohol six times as many of them died 
as when they had not had the alcohol. From many 
different experiments he came to the conclusion that 
even a small quantity of alcohol affects the blood in 
such a way that it loses its power to destroy disease 
microbes. 

This seems to be the case even with people who take 
beer. 

Toledo, Ohio, is one of the principal beer cities of 
America, and various people there are making thousands 
of dollars every year by selling beer to their countrymen, 
as well as to Germans who have moved to the city. A 
newspaper called the Toledo Blade is bent on learning 
exact facts. Therefore, instead of asking those who 
drank beer what they thought of it, the Blade sent an 
intelligent man around to ask the best doctors of the 
place whether beer did any harm to their patients. One 
after the other gave the same answer. 

Dr. S. H. Burgen, who has been practicing in Toledo 
for twenty-eight years, said: 



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CITY HEALTH AND ALCOHOL 217 

I think beer kills quicker than any other liquor. My attention 
was first called to its insidious effects when I began examining for 
life insurance. I passed, as unusually good risks, five Germans, young 
business men, who seemed in the best health and to have superb con- 
stitutions. In a few years I was amazed to see the whole five drop 
off, one after the other, with what ought to have been mild and easily 
curable diseases. On comparing my experience with that of other 
physicians I found that they were all having similar luck with con- 
firmed beer drinkers, and my practice since has heaped confirmation 
on confirmation. 

As for those who need operations he said : " Beer 
drinkers are absolutely the most dangerous class of sub- 
jects a surgeon can operate on. All surgeons hesitate to 
perform an operation on a beer drinker." 

Dr. C. A. Kirkley said, " Sickness is always more fatal 
in beer drinkers, and accidents are usually fatal to them." 

Dr. S. S. Thorne said : 

If you could drop into a little circle of doctors when they are having 
a quiet, professional chat, you would hear enough in a few minutes to 
terrify you as to the work of beer. One will say, " What *s become 
of So and So? I haven*t seen him around lately." " Oh, he *s dead." 
" Dead ! What was the matter? " " Beer," comes the answer. Another 
will say : " I Ve just come from Blank's. I am afraid it is about my 
last call on him, poor fellow." "What's the trouble?" "Oh, he's 
been a regular beer drinker for years." And so on, till half a dozen 
physicians have mentioned fifty recent cases where apparently strong, 
hearty men, at a time of life when they should be in their prime, have 
suddenly dropped into the grave. To say they are habitual beer 
drinkers is sufficient explanation to any physician. 



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2l8 TOWN AND CITY 

So in Toledo many doctors said the same thing. But 
there are other cities and other drinks. Dr. Willard 
Parker, one of the most noted physicians of New York, 
once said, " One third of all the deaths in New York City 
are caused, directly or indirectly, by alcoholic drinks." 

Sir Andrew Clark, a famous London doctor, put the 
figure higher yet. 

I *m speaking solemnly and carefully in the presence of truth, and I 
tell you I am considerably within the mark when I say to you that, 
going the round of my hospitals to-day, seven out of every ten there 
owed their ill health to alcohol. Now what does that mean? That 
out of every hundred patients whom I have charge of at the London 
Hospital seventy of them directly owe their ill health to alcohol. I do 
not know that one of them was a drunkard. 

Still all this is about the effect that alcohol has on 
the bodies of men. But one and all agree that the worst 
damage is to the mind and character. They say that 
very often the will is weakened by alcohol, just as the 
muscles are weakened by fever. In fact, .the more alco- 
hol a man takes the weaker his will grows, while the 
weaker his will grows the more alcohol he takes. After 
that, in thousands of cases, it is a rapid whirl down to 
destruction. As Professor Atwater says, "Saddest of all 
is the effect upon the mental functions: the weakening 
of the will and the deadening of the moral sensibilities, 
the ruin of character which is wrought by alcohol as 
a drug." 



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CITY HEALTH AND ALCOHOL 219 

As far as families and cities are concerned the most 
serious thing about alcohol is that the drinker who goes 
to destruction because of it does not go alone. He usually 
drags others along with him, and his dearest friends 
suffer most. 

A certain beer-selling society in England had been 
objecting to something that Mr. Justice Grantham said 
about alcohol, whereupon he stated the case more posi- 
tively than ever, showing just how it is that innocent 
people suffer. 

I have lately been brought face to face for weeks with the conduct 
of publicans (saloon keepers) in the carrying on of their business, which 
has resulted in the most heart-breaking crimes it is possible to imagine, 
— husbands murdering their wives, wives their husbands, fathers their 
sons, friends their own best friends, all through the maddening influ- 
ence of excessive drinking. Twelve murders, eighteen attempts at 
murder, and woundings without number have been my own and my 
brother judge's fare for the last four weeks on one circuit, and in almost 
every case drink was the cause. 

But, in addition to all this, the children of these unfor- 
tunates suffer just as the children of Bum and Tipsy 
suffered. 

Professor Demme, of Stuttgart, studied the history of 
ten families of drunkards and ten temperance families 
for ten years, and then printed the results. He took 
notes about those human children just as carefully as 
Dr. Hodge took notes about the puppies. 



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220 TOWN AND CITY 

The following is a table which shows some of the 
things he learned about them. 

Drunkards' Temperance 

Families Families 

Number of children 57 61 

Died before six weeks old 25 5 

Idiots 6 o 

Stunted in growth 5 o 

Epilepsy 5 o 

Nervous in childhood, but cured . . o 6 

Ordinary good health in childhood . . 17.5% 81.5% 

Study these two columns carefully, and notice the 
number of idiots. Massachusetts tried to account* for 
the number of idiots in the state and appointed a 
committee of investigation with Dr. Howe as chairman. 
He looked up the history of three hundred of these 
unfortunate children, and found that one hundred and 
forty-five of them had intemperate fathers and mothers. 

Evidently children are apt to suffer quite as much 
as their parents in this matter. The truth is that the 
scientific facts about the effects of alcohol are not under- 
stood widely enough. No intelligent person will risk his 
health if he knows he is risking it. Definite study, 
therefore, in this direction is so important that in Eng- 
land, in 1905, fifteen thousand doctors signed a peti- 
tion asking their government to teach the facts about 
alcohol to English school children as they are taught 
in America. 



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CHAPTER XXVII 

LITTLE TURTLE, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, AND THE 
LINCOLN LEGION 

One hundred years ago Little Turtle was a famous 
Indian chief and warrior. He was also one of the 
Indians who signed the treaty of Greenville in 1795. 
And this treaty was supposed to join the red men to the 
white men in a peaceful bond. 

No doubt the white settlers of the country were 
anxious to help their Indian fellow-countrymen, for in 
1801 the Committee on Indians invited Little Turtle 
to go to Baltimore and tell them how they could be most 
useful to him and to his people. Now since the man 
was a full-blooded Indian and a fighter, and since he was 
spokesman for his fellow red men, who were also fighters 
and hunters, perhaps the committee expected him to ask 
for guns and powder, for blankets, beads, and tobacco. 
If so, his speech must have made them hold their breath 
and look at each other with surprise; for, instead, he 
begged them to save his people from the curse of the 
white man's alcohol. He spoke in the Indian language 
and every sentence had to be translated. Yet the mean- 
ing was plain and every one listened as he spoke. 



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222 TOWN AND CITY 

Brothers and friends, it is this liquor that causes our young men to 
go without clothes, our women and children to go without anything to 
eat, and sorry am I to mention to you, brothers, that the evil is increas- 
ing every day. Brothers, when our young men have been out hunting, 
and are returning home loaded with skins and furs, on their way if they 
come along where some of this whisky is deposited, the white man 
who sells it tells them to take a little and drink. Some will then say, 
** No, I do not want it." They go until they come to another house, 
where they find more of the same kind of drink. It is there again 
offered. They refuse again the second time, but finally, the fourth or 
fifth time, one accepts it and takes a drink, and, getting one, he wants 
another, and then a third and fourth, till his senses have left him. After 
his reason comes back again to him he gets up and finds where he is. 
He asks for his peltry. The answer is, "You have drunk them." 
" Where is my gun ? " " It is gone." " Where is my blanket? " " It is 
gone." " W^here is my shirt? " "You have sold it for whisky." Now, 
brothers, figure to yourself what a condition this man must be in; 
he has a family at home, a wife and children that stand in need of the 
profits of his hunting. 

This, brothers, I can assure you is a fact that often happens amongst 
us. As I have before observed, we have no means to prevent it. . . . 
It is not an evil, brothers, of our own making ; we have not placed it 
among ourselves. It is an evil placed amongst us by the white people ; 
we look up to them to remove it out of our country. Our repeated 
entreaties to those who brought this evil amongst us, we find, have not 
the desired effect. We tell them, brothers, to fetch us useful things, 
bring goods that will clothe our women and children, and not this evil 
liquor that destroys our reason, that destroys our health, that destroys 
our lives. But all we can say on this subject is of no service, nor gives 
relief to your red brethren. Our young men say : " We had better be at 
war with the white people. This liquor they introduce into our country 



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THE INDIANS AND ABRAHAM LINCOLN 223 

is more to be feared than the gun and tomahawk ; there are more of us 
dead since the treaty of Greenville than we lost by the six years' war 
before. It is all owing to the introduction of this liquor amongst us." 

Brothers and friends, since the introduction amongst us of what you 
call spirituous liquors, and what we think may justly be called poison, 
our numbers have greatly diminished. It has destroyed a great part of 
your red brethren. 

These are a few sentences from the red man*s great tem- 
perance address, and the committee who Hstened were so 
much impressed by it that they sent a copy to Congress 
and asked the senators to grant Little Turtle's petition. 
The government printed the speech, and to-day it is 
stored away in the Congressional Library in Washington. 

No doubt it influenced the government at the time 
and helped the Indian; for after that, when the United 
States made treaties with the Five Civilized Tribes, they 
pledged the Indian that no white man should be allowed 
to sell intoxicating liquor in Indian Territory. And 
when, years later, the Indian tribes finally agreed to give 
up their own government and allow white men to live 
with them as citizens of Indian Territory, the one con- 
dition that they insisted on was that liquor should not 
come in at the same time. They were so earnest about it 
that our government gave them the following promise. 

The United States agrees to maintain strict laws in the territory of 
said nation against the introduction, sale, barter, or giving away of 
liquors and intoxicants of any kind or quality. 



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224 



TOWN AND CITY 



But Indians were not the only ones who were bright 
onough to try to save themselves from alcohol years 
ago. Abraham Lincoln lived and talked fifty years later, 
but he was just as much in earnest as Little Turtle, and 
he influenced small boys as well as statesmen. 

Mr. Cleopas Breckenridge, of Springfield, Illinois, was 
a boy at that time. He says that one day in 1846 there 
was to be a temperance meeting near the new South Fork 
schoolhouse, not far from his home. The speaker was a 
vigorous young lawyer from Springfield, and for miles 
around the people wanted to hear him. So those who had 
horses and wagons hitched them up for service. They 
walked or they drove, according as they were able ; and 
when they reached the appointed place they sat around 
on logs and boughs left over from the building of the 
schoolhouse, and listened to what the young man had to 
say. Evidently he was desperately in earnest, for he did 
not once suggest that they should be careful not to drink 
too much when they used liquor. Instead, he told them 
that the only safe way was to stop off short, to sign the 
pledge, and never to drink again. 

He was such a good lawyer that he convinced his 
hearers with sound arguments. They agreed with him, 
and when he had finished speaking he said, " I have 
here a pledge which I have written and signed myself, 
and am asking my neighbors, so far as they are willing 
to do so, to sign it with me." Naturally enough, since 



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THE INDIANS AND ABRAHAM LINCOLN 225 

they were already convinced, many in the audience were 
glad to sign it. 

Mr. Breckenridge was a small boy at the time, but he 
remembers the day perfectly, and he says : 

The first thing I knew the speaker was standing right in front of me. 
As I looked up into his face he said, "Sonny, don't you want your 
name on this pledge? " I answered, " Yes, sir." He said, "You know 
what it means — that you are not to drink intoxicating liquor as a 
beverage?" I answered, "Yes, sir, I know what it means." He then 
signed my name upon the pledge, knowing that a boy of my age in those 
days could not write his own name. And then, reaching down, he laid 
his hand upon my head and said, " Now, sonny, you keep that pledge, 
and it will be the best act of your life." 

Here is the pledge as Abraham Lincoln wrote it. 

Whereas, the use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage is productive of 
pauperism, degradation and crime, and believing it is our duty to dis- 
courage that which produces more evil than good, we therefore pledge 
ourselves to abstain from the use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage. 

As Abraham Lincoln grew older, and while he was 
President of the United States, he was still true to what 
he believed, and he was always brave enough to say 
what he thought. He said: 

Good citizenship demands and requires that what is right should not 
only be made known but be made prevalent ; that what is evil should not 
only be detected and defeated, but destroyed. The saloon has proved 
itself to be the greatest foe, the most blighting curse, of our modem 
civilization, and this is the reason why I am a practical prohibitionist. 



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226 TOWN AND CITY 

With such a record as this it is not strange that to-day- 
Lincoln is chosen as the great leader of the Lincoln 
Legion. The pledge they use is the pledge he wrote ; 
and with his pledge to give them courage, and his name 
to inspire them, no wonder the first small legion has 
already become legions and legions strong. 

It was started in Oberlin, Ohio, on the 2 ist of October, 
1903, and it seemed to pick up the temperance subject 
where Lincoln left it off in 1846; for Cleopas Brecken- 
ridge and Moses Martin, his friend, had come from the 
schoolhouse meeting to this one. To be sure, fifty-seven 
years had slipped in between the two meetings, and these 
gray-haired men who came to town now were ten-year- 
old boys when they listened to Abraham Lincoln at the 
log schoolhouse. Still they had kept his pledge faith- 
fully, and now they recited it again; and when it was 
written down and passed around for names they were 
allowed to sign it first, which made them the first mem- 
bers of the Lincoln Legion. 

From that day to this Lincoln's name has seemed to 
act like a magnet, for the numbers ran up fast from tens 
to hundreds, from hundreds to thousands, in all parts of 
the country, until, during one year, two hundred and 
twenty-five thousand people joined the Legion and signed 
the pledge. 

The plan is to put these Lincolnites into groups of 
tens, hundreds, and thousands. A comrade, as he is 



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THE INDIANS AND ABRAHAM LINCOLN 227 

called, guides each ten, while each hundred and each 
thousand has a captain. There are secretaries for each 
state and each county, and the officers receive hand- 
some papers which explain their commission. 

The work of the Legion is very plain. It simply car- 
ries on what Abraham Lincoln began, and proposes to 
save as much of the country as possible from alcohol. 
To help the cause along each legion is supposed to hold 
its annual meeting on Lincoln's birthday, — an honor- 
able memorial of him. 

Another proposition is to turn our Fourth of July from 
a day of great carousing into the sort of patriotic, enthu- 
siastic, anti-alcohol day that President Lincoln would 
have liked best. 

Lincoln's own Legion, in 1846, met near a school- 
house; the next one, in 1903, met in a college town; 
and to-day it is the intelligent school children all over 
the country that are asked to join the Lincoln Legions 
of our towns and our cities. 



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CHAPTER XXVIII 

WHY MOSQUITOES SHOULD GO 

' There is so much malaria on the Roman Campagna 
that during part of each year the business of having it 
really seems to be the occupation of the people. This 
is not strange, for to this day most of the inhabitants 
fail to protect themselves from it. They believe that 
malaria is a queer mixture of dampness and warmth; 
that it oozes out of the ground; that it belongs to cer- 
tain places, as cold belongs to the north pole and heat 
to the torrid zone ; and that no one who breathes it can 
escape it. 

In 1900 two scientific men went to that region to 
prove an opposite doctrine which a few other scientists 
already believed. They chose' the most malarial spot 
in the entire Campagna, and there they built a five- 
room cottage. It stood on the bank of a canal that 
swarmed with mosquito wigglers or larvae, but every 
door and window of the cottage was closely screened 
to keep the mosquitoes out. 

These facts are the ones to notice, for they are the very 
center of the experiment. When sundown came the 

men slipped into the cottage behind the screens, lit their 

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WHY MOSQUITOES SHOULD GO 



229 




Anopheles pointed for Blood 

Three times as large as life. Malaria may 
follow 



lamps, and watched the gathering of the anopheles mos- 
quitoes on the outside. This is the kind of mosquito 
that lives in malarial places, and it seems that they 
generally stay in hiding by 
day. After dark, however, 
they stream out in swarms 
and start off on splendid 
hunting expeditions. 

So now they came to 
the cottage, perched on the 
screens, and peered through 
with hungry eyes. They 
longed for one square meal of human blood, but the 
men did not relent. They simply went off to bed and 
left them there lamenting. It was easy to tell which the 
anopheles were, for, in standing, the end of the body 
generally points upward and away from the surface 

on which they stand, while the legs 
do not curl upward, although they 
sometimes stretch straight out be- 
hind. With the culex, however, — 
the mosquito that sings and stings 
harmlessly in every land, — the end 
of the body points downward when he stands, and his 
legs curl upward. 

When the malarial season of summer and fall was 
over the two men had escaped both anopheles and 




Curved-Legged Culex 

Three times as large as 
life 



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230 TOWN AND CITY 

malaria. They had left their windows wide open, and 
had breathed the air of that malarial region every day 
and every night ; yet they were as well at the end as at 
the beginning of their experiment. The news about it 
was telegraphed to all corners of the earth, and scientific 
men in every land knew at once that henceforward 
anopheles mosquitoes and human beings must stop 
living in the same houses. 

Soon after came another experiment proving the case 
from the opposite side of the question. 

Several anopheles in Rome were allowed to have a 
glorious feast on the blood of a man who had malaria. 
They were then shipped off to London, where a coura- 
geous man offered his body for the experiment. He 
had never had malaria ; had never even lived in a mala- 
rial country, and the question was whether those Roman 
anopheles could actually bring the disease from Italy and 
prick it into a Londoner. 

They were hungry when they arrived, took hold in 
earnest, and sucked all the blood they wanted. After 
that, sure enough, came the proof. The man became ill 
with malaria. 

Microscopes have been used so faithfully since those 
days that scientists now know precisely how it is that 
anopheles can both rob a man of his blood and give 
him malaria at the same time. The mystery is with the 
microbe that spends part of its life in the stomach of 



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WHY MOSQUITOES SHOULD GO 231 

the anopheles and the rest of it in the blood of man. 
It grows in both places, and would actually amount to 
nothing if it had to spend all its life in either place 
without going to the other. 

Curiously enough, these malaria microbes are so fas- 
tidious that the body of no other kind of mosquito 
pleases them. They must live in the anopheles or 
nowhere. 

More than that, the female alone gets the microbe, 
for she alone has a beak strong enough to puncture 
the human skin. As she draws blood from the little 
wound she has made, it always happens that, quite with- 
out any thought of harm, she lets some of her saliva 
drip into it, and just there are the microbes. They now 
dart into the red corpuscles of the blood, live there and 
grow large, divide into several parts, and end by burst- 
ing numberless corpuscles into fragments. When this 
happens the body that owns those corpuscles has a 
chill, and the doctor says : " Poor man ! he has caught 
malaria somehow ; we '11 have to dose him with quinine." 
It appears that quinine is sure to kill these special 
microbes. 

After the new microbes have broken through the 
first red corpuscles they take up lodgings in others. 
At this point, therefore, the fever is well under way. 
Any anopheles mosquitoes sucking blood now will take 
malarial microbes into their stomachs with the blood 



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232 TOWN AND CITY 

and will pass them on to the next man they bite. From 
this history five things are clear: 

1. Malaria is carried by the anopheles 
mosquitoes. 

2. Anopheles carry no disease until they 
have sucked malarial blood. 

3. No other kind of mosquito carries the 
disease. 

4. If anopheles were banished from the 
earth, there would never be another case of 
malaria. 

5. Until mosquitoes of every sort are 
banished, men must be protected from 
them. 

Unfortunately for the harmless culex, he and the 
harmful anopheles multiply in the same ponds, visit the 
same houses, sing the same song, — though the anopheles 
has a lower voice, — and puncture the same men. They 
must therefore be killed or banished together, for there 
is no separating the one kind from the other. 

Still another mosquito is yet more cruel than the 
anopheles. His name is stegomyia, and for many gen- 
erations in Havana, Cuba, he carried on his terrible 
traffic in yellow fever without raising a suspicion. 

This fever was as common in Havana as malaria is 
in Rome. It was also deadly and swift in the way it 
worked, and, from doctors down to children, every one 



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WHY MOSQUITOES SHOULD GO 



233 



counted it contagious. They treated it as smallpox is 
treated ; that is, healthy people fled from it, while those 
who had to stay dared touch nothing that belonged to a 
victim of it. 

In those days, when Havana suffered most, every city 
in America that received fruit and merchandise from 
Cuba had a panic lest 
the fever should ar- 
rive with the cargo. 

Now, however, 
there is a change. 

Some one noticed 
that yellow fever and 
mosquitoes seemed 
to come and go to- 
gether, even as mos- 
quitoes and malaria 
go hand in hand. 
Later certain scien- 
tific men became so 
sure of this that they dared to undertake a famous 
experiment. 

At Camp Lazear, one mile from the town of Que- 
mados, Cuba, they built a small frame house, and for 
sixty-three days seven men took turns living there. 
They occupied the place two at a time, each couple 
staying about twenty days on a stretch. Here, as on 




Stegomyia ready 
TO CARRY Yellow 
Fever 

Greatly magnified 



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234 TOWN AND CITY 

the Roman Campagna, the house was so thoroughly 
screened that no mosquitoes, however slim or sly, could 
by any chance squeeze in. 

Do not for a moment forget that at that time — the 
summer of 1900 — all the world was sure that yellow 
fever was carried from man to man in the clothing 
and the belongings of those who had the fever during 
the time that they used the things. 

Now hear what the men did. They went into their 
small cottage ; kept the mosquitoes out, to be sure, but 
received instead great boxes of bedding and clothing 
that had been used by yellow-fever victims. Soiled blan- 
kets and sheets, soiled pillow slips and night clothes, — 
things that different men had lived in for days, had slept 
in for nights, had even died in, — all these came to the 
camp without fumigation. The men there, however, put 
on the night clothes and slept in the bedding every night 
for weeks together. 

Nevertheless, when the sixty-three days were over not 
a man of the number had caught the fever; they were 
as well as when they entered the cottage, and they had 
proved that yellow fever is not contagious, — that is, 
that it does not travel with the things the victims 
touch and use. 

At the same time that this experiment was going on, 
another small building was put up at the camp. Here 
were two rooms with a wire screen dividing them. 



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WHY MOSQUITOES SHOULD GO 235 

Everything that came to this house was most carefully 
disinfected by steam before it was received, and nothing 
but the cleanest, safest bedding was allowed. Seven 
healthy men entered the larger room, and stegomyia 
mosquitoes that had already drawn yellow-fever blood 
were turned into it, too. The men were truly brave, for, 
although they believed that stegomyia carried the fever, 
they were willing to risk their lives for the sake of 
learning how to save the lives of others. 

After entering the room they were promptly bitten, 
for the mosquitoes were hungry. Then, as had been 
expected, yellow fever followed. Six men were ill with 
it, and one hero died. He was a surgeon in the United 
States Army, and the camp bears his name, — Lazear. 

In the second room there were men but no mosquitoes; 
neither was there any yellow fever. The case was now 
as clear as possible against the unfortunate stegomyia, 
and Havana set to work to get rid of them. 



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CHAPTER XXIX 

WHAT NEW ORLEANS AND BROOKLINE DID 

Five years later, after Havana had practically banished 
the mosquitoes and conquered the disease, behold, it 
broke out in New Orleans. 

No one knew how it came, but it may be that mos- 
quitoes loaded with yellow-fever blood stole a passage 
in some cargo from Central America and arrived in 
New Orleans as hungry as those Italian anopheles were 
when they reached London. 

However that may be, early in the summer of 1905 
the fever was in the city, and here and there men, 
women, and children were dying from it. Since mos- 
quitoes abound in New Orleans, scientists knew at once 
that it was the old story over again : 

1. A healthy man stabbed by a mosquito 
filled with yellow-fever poison. 

2. A man with yellow fever and a mos- 
quito that sucked his blood. 

The more cases there were the more chances the stego- 
myia had, and by the 30th of July 260 citizens had yellow 
fever and 55 of them had died. By the middle of Septem- 
ber 2462 citizens had had it and 329 of them were dead. 

236 

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WHAT NEW ORLEANS AND BROOKLINE DID 237 

Yellow fever has often traveled even faster than that. 
In Philadelphia, for example, in 1798, over three thou- 
sand citizens died of it, while New York had over two 
thousand deaths during the same year from it alone. 




CuLEX Eggs 
Magnified 



Two Eggs 
Greatly magnified 



In 1905, however, the epidemic in New Orleans grad- 
ually faded out after September. The truth is that 
intelligent people knew how Havana had saved herself, 
and they proposed to follow her example. Mosquitoes 




From Pupa to Mosquito (Anopheles) 
Three times as large as life 

were therefore slain by the million, and larvae by the 
billion and the trillion. Everybody was in earnest 
Ministers preached sermons on the subject ; newspapers 
told the people what to do and begged them to do it; 
handbills and posters were put up here, there, and 



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238 TOWN AND CITY 

everywhere, urging all good citizens to carry on a valiant 
war; and at last there was such enthusiasm that rich 
men and poor men, young men and old men, women and 
children, all joined hands. 

They worked Sundays as well as week days, for they 
knew that the choice lay between killing stegomyia or 
being killed by them. 

Sulphur was used by the ton and kerosene oil by the 
tankful and the car load. Citizens work well in such a 
cause when they are intelligent, and even the children 
of the city now knew many of the following facts about 
stegomyia : 

1. Mosquitoes lay two or three hundred 
eggs at a time in any spot, large or small, 
that holds water. A wide-spreading marsh 
is not too large, and a sardine can on a dump 
heap is not too small. 

2. The more uncovered, standing water 
there is in a house or out of it the more 
mosquitoes there will be. 

3. If there is no such water, there will be 
no mosquitoes. 

4. Eggs turn to larvae, larvae to pupae, 
and pupae to mosquitoes. 

5. It takes anywhere from ten days to a 
month for an egg to turn into a mosquito 
ready to bite. 



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WHAT NEW ORLEANS AND BROOKLINE DID 239 

6. These mosquitoes do not often fly far- 
ther than three hundred yards from where 
they are hatched. But spots of standing 
water between cities make it possible for 
mosquitoes to reach widely separated places. 

7. Larvae breathe through a tube that 
runs off from the body near the tail. They 
thrust this tube to the surface of the water 
and draw air down through it. 

8. If oil is poured on the water, each sep- 
arate larva runs his tube into it. He is then 
drowned because the oil shuts him off from 
the air he needs to breathe. 

9. All mosquitoes in houses should be 
killed. 

10. No mosquitoes should ever be allowed 
to bite a yellow-fever patient. 

11. No person should allow himself to be 
bitten by any mosquito of any sort, for it may 
turn out to be anopheles or stegomyia. 

Knowing these facts, the citizens of New Orleans 
worked intelligently and with a will. In a single day 
fifty tons of sulphur were burned in houses and hotels 
to kill full-grown mosquitoes, while multitudes of young 
citizens fell to cutting grass and pulling weeds. They 
were determined to find every hidden pool and marsh, 
for there, they knew, were the eggs and the wigglers. 



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240 



TOWN AND CITY 



Other citizens drove carts loaded with earth and 
filled ponds and marshy places as fast as they were 
found. At the same time, on every street, there was a 




CULEX WiGGLER ANOPHELES WiGGLER 

Three times as large as life 

smell of kerosene oil, for there were forty-five thousand 
open cisterns in the city and each one was being oiled. 




^ i-=^ - ,: ^-^_j^ 






WiGGLERS Swimming and Breathing 
Life size 

If New Orleans had given heed to what was done 
in Havana in 1901, she would have had no yellow-fever 
death record in 1905. She would have dislodged her 



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WHAT NEW ORLEANS AND BROOKLINE DID 24 1 

mosquitoes in time to save her citizens. Wise cities all 
over the country are already doing this faithfully. 

New York began her special mosquito work in 1902. 
She appointed inspectors to hunt for ponds, pools, and 
stagnant water ; she asked every doctor to report all his 
malaria cases promptly, and offered to examine with the 
microscope, free of charge, the blood of any citizen who 
was supposed to have the fever. If, then, malarial mi- 
crobes were found, it was plain that the man had the 
fever ; if they were not found, the disease was evidently 
something else. 

Brookline, Massachusetts, has fought the mosquitoes 
every summer since 1901. She has done this for three 
reasons : 

1. There was malaria in the place. 

2. Mosquitoes were a torment in the 
summer. 

3. In certain parts of the town the value 
of property was low because the number of 
mosquitoes was high. 

Even in 1901 the citizens knew precisely what should 
be done, and in 1901 and 1902 they took the following 
steps : 

1. They made a list of the places where 
stagnant water stood. 

2. They marked each spot on a map of 
the town. 



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242 



TOWN AND CITY 



3. They asked a scientist to investigate 
each spot, and find out whether wigglers 
were in it, or whether frogs and fish were 
there instead. 
It seems that, as a rule, frogs and fish enjoy wigglers 
so well that they help the town by eating them up. In 
most of the ponds and ditches, however, frogs were few 

and wigglers were many. 
These latter, therefore, 
needed vigorous treatment. 
The board of health now 
bought oil cans, picks, hoes, 
rakes, shovels, scythes, 
hand force pumps, water- 
ing pots, rubber hose, iron 
pails, and, most important 
of all, five hundred gallons 
of kerosene oil, the kind 
known as light fuel oil. This is thin enough to spread 
quickly and thick enough not to evaporate too fast. 

To take charge of these things and use them the 
board next hired two laborers, a horse, a wagon, and an 
overseer, and sent them off to fill the small ponds and 
oil the large ones of the town. Watering pots and hose 
sprinkled the oil, though often all that was needed was 
to pour it on and stir up the water and let the oil do its 
own spreading. 




Oiling a Brookline Pond to 
suffocate the wigglers 



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WHAT NEW ORLEANS AND BROOKLINE DID 243 

Still, even before that, work was necessary, for when 
either pool, pond, or ditch was overgrown with water 
weeds and grass, a scythe was first used to cut the stuff 
away. If the place was found to be shallow or small, 
instead of using oil it was filled with earth from some 
neighboring higher spot. To turn a pool into dry land 
in this way is a more permanent help than to oil it, for 
oil evaporates within two or three weeks and has to be 
put on again. 

As the result of their labor, the citizens of Brookline 
succeeded in greatly reducing the mosquito nuisance. 
The fact, however, is that so long as neighboring cities 
do nothing in the matter, those towns that wish to pro- 
tect themselves will have to renew the fight every year. 
This is necessary because mosquitoes are ready to lay 
their eggs in any pond or pool within their reach, and 
such places exist from point to point between most cities. 
Moreover, as we know, eggs in these ponds* soon pro- 
duce wigglers, while wigglers are soon full-fledged mos- 
quitoes with wings and stings ready to suck blood from 
their human prey. To save themselves, therefore, groups 
of towns and cities must act together if they wish to 
rid themselves permanently of their common foe, the 
mosquito. 



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CHAPTER XXX 

HOSPITAL, DISPENSARY, AND AMBULANCE 

When Mr. Barber, the traveler, visited China, taking 
notes of what he saw, he realized that the inhabitants of 
the Yunnan valley had never heard of microbes. 

They did believe, however, that a certain deadly disease 
called the plague was contagious, and to save themselves 
from it those who were well never tarried for a moment 
near a victim of the disease if they could help it. They 
simply put the unfortunate person into a room by 
himself, placed a vessel of water by his side, left the 
room, fastened the door, put a long pole beside it, and 
went away. 

Twice a day after that those same anxious relatives 
and friends returned to the door, opened it a crack, took 
hold of the long pole, thrust it into the room, and poked 
the man with it to find out whether he was still alive or 
whether he had died. Generally, of course, he died, but 
sometimes he actually recovered and staggered out of the 
room weak and forlorn enough, though ready to go on 
living for a while longer. 

Still, even this strange treatment was wiser than that 
practiced by the Ponapeans when smallpox raged on their 

244 

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HOSPITAL, DISPENSARY, AND AMBULANCE 245 

island, for the Chinese method does at least check an epi- 
demic, while the Ponapean method advances it by leaps 
and bounds. 

In all countries, however, hospitals are best. They 
existed long before Pasteur discovered the secret of epi- 
demic microbes, but as no one in those days knew the 
tricks of the microbe, every sort of disease except small- 
pox was bunched together under the same roof. Con- 
sumption, scarlet fever, diphtheria, njeasles, and whooping 
cough sometimes flourished side by side, while in such a 
place children recovering from one disease were often 
weak enough and unfortunate enough to take another 
from some near neighbor. 

This was the case in New York even as late as 1905. 
At that time, although every one knew whooping cough 
to be contagious, no whooping-cough hospitals had been 
provided in the city. When, therefore, a certain boy had 
the malady, and when, in spite of all he could do, he 
exposed many other children to it, the health department 
advised his going to a hospital. 

Nevertheless, no hospital in New York was willing to 
expose its patients to the danger of catching the disease. 
The whole affair, therefore, ended by the boy's being 
sent to a particular hospital in another city where many 
different kinds of disease were cared for. As no other 
spot in the building was vacant, the officers put the boy 
in the scarlet-fever room, hoping, of course, that he 



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246 TOWN AND CITY 

would escape the disease. Instead, he added scarlet fever 
to whooping cough and died soon afterwards. 

Fortunately that sort of thing is exceedingly rare in 
America ; for in our largest cities each special disease 
has its own special hospital, or its special rooms apart 
from all the others. 

An interesting example of this is in St. Paul, Minne- 
sota. In that city the hospital that has special con- 
tagious-disease wards claims to keep two objects always 
in mind : 

1. To quarantine contagious disease; that 
is, to keep each kind by itself. 

2. To keep healthy people from being ex- 
posed to the contagious diseases that have 
come to the hospital to be cured. 

Naturally, of course, everything is arranged to accom- 
plish these two things. 

The three-story red brick building stands on a high 
bluff surrounded by air and sunshine. It overlooks the 
Mississippi River, and from basement to roof it is a com- 
pact set of rooms constructed to keep the microbes of 
one disease from mingling with the microbes of the other 
diseases in the hospital. 

To run no risk in the matter, each separate floor has 
its separate elevator, and the only way to go from floor 
to floor to the contagious-disease rooms is by stepping 
out of doors, using some outside stairs, and then stepping 



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HOSPITAL, DISPENSARY, AND AMBULANCE 247 

indoors again a story higher or a story lower, for there 
are no inside stairways connecting the stories with each 
other. 

By all this arrangement the one hundred and fifty 
patients in the hospital are as safe from each other's dis- 
eases as if their different microbes lived in different 
buildings. That, indeed, is the ambition of every conta- 
gious-disease hospital in the world. They aim to be 
places where citizens have the best chance to overcome 
their own disease microbes and the least chance to khare 
them with other people. 

Small cities and large cities are alike in this, but each 
has its own special hospital history. 

New York began with hers in the days when her city 
name was New Amsterdam. At that time the churches 
of the town raised money to care for the sick and unfor- 
tunate people of the place. Later the town itself helped 
pay the bills. Later yet, when a smallpox epidemic raged 
in 1736, the city built a small house on the spot where 
the city hall now stands, and called it the city poorhouse. 

It was in that very building, one hundred and seventy 
years ago, that the great Belle vue Hospital began its his- 
tory,, for one room of this poorhouse was set aside for the 
use of citizens who had no other place to go, and who 
were too ill to care for themselves. 

The room held six beds. It was not very comfortable, 
not very clean, not well ventilated, and no tidy trained 



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248 



TOWN AND CITY 



nurse ever cared for the sick who were in it. Neverthe- 
less, that was the hospital part of the poorhouse, and it 
was much better than nothing. 

In those days, however, yellow fever visited the city 
almost every year. More beds were needed, also larger 
rooms, so another building was put up. After that still 




Copyrighted by Van Horn and Sawtelle 

The Bellevuk Hospital 

another was required, and in 181 1 the whole institution 
of poorhouse and hospital was moved to where the 
Bellevue Hospital stands to-day, though the name itself 
was not given to the place until 1825. 

In the meantime, however, it continued to grow and 
has kept on growing ever since, constantly changing 
its character. 



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HOSPITAL, DISPENSARY, AND AMBULANCE 249 



Starting as a poorhouse, it became a hospital. Start- 
ing with one room, six beds, and small expense, it 
had in 1902, nine hundred 
and thirty-nine beds, with 
thirty thousand people 
cared for during one year, 
at an expense to the city, 
of four hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars. Opening 
for sick citizens who had 
almost every sort of disease, 
it now refuses to receive 
any citizen suffering with a 
contagious disease. 

In other words, the hospi- 
tal has grown with the city, 
while at the same time it 
has learned the lesson of the 
microbe and the danger of 
epidemic diseases. 

During the years that the 
Bellevue was growing other 
hospitals also came to life, 
until to-day New York City 
has twenty-two of them. Some are supported by the 
city, others by generous citizens. Some take care of all 
diseases save those that are contagious; others are for 




A Nurse 
Ready to be useful 



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250 TOWN AND CITY 

contagious diseases alone, — for measles, consumption, 
diphtheria, smallpox, cancer, and the like. Others yet are 
for special sets of people, as for children and the aged ; 
also for special diseases of special parts of the body, — 
for example, the eye and ear, the nose, throat, and skin. 

As interesting as any is the wonderful children's hospi- 
tal on Forty-second Street. Here two hundred children 
with crooked bones and twisted backs are gradually being 
made straight again. Their disease is really tuberculosis 
of the bones, yet in the midst of sunshine, pure air, and 
cleanliness, with toys to keep them merry and kind nurs- 
ing to help them along, case after case improves and even 
gets well again. 

In every hospital, in every land, the same laws of 
cleanliness and sunshine, of good nursing and skilled 
doctors are the laws of quick recovery. Still some hospi- 
tals have more money with which to carry out the laws, 
while others are more modern and can do it better. 

St. Luke's Hospital, in New York, seems to be a model 
in all directions, as the following precise facts will show: 

1. Its location is Morningside Heights, the 
most beautiful hospital site in New York City. 

2. The building is gray brick and stone 
on the outside; on the inside exceedingly 
plain, no chance for dust anywhere, no sharp 
angles where floor meets wall or where wall 
meets ceiling, curves being used instead. No 



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HOSPITAL, DISPENSARY, AND AMBULANCE 25 1 

moldings are on the walls to hold dust, and 
there are no curtains or carpets in the rooms 
to catch and keep it. 

3. Each ward shows polished floors, white 
walls, white iron bedsteads, and long rows 
of windows, while cleanliness, sunshine, and 
good cheer are on every side. 

4. There is perfect ventilation. In each 
room the air is changed every ten minutes, 
while at, the same time it is kept warm in 
winter and cool in summer. 

This hospital provides for three hundred free patients, 
beside thirty-six others who pay for what they get. It 
receives its patients from doctors all over the city, and 
supplies ten house doctors, seventy-one nurses, and 
one hundred and twenty-five servants to attend to their 
wants. 

Last of all, and one of the most important things that 
hospitals provide for citizens, is the ambulance. Listen 
to the clanging bell, and see wagons, horses, and men 
move quickly aside as one of the long black wagons 
rushes by. 

Some doctor or policeman has called it by telephone, 
and even the horses seem to understand that a citizen is 
injured, ill, or dying ; that a human life is at stake and that 
the ambulance must reach him in time. In fact, according 
to city law, everything else gives way as promptly to an 



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252 



TOWN AND CITY 



ambulance as to the fire engine ; while safely stowed away 
inside are bandages, medicine, and instruments, and a 
surgeon ready to use them on the way to the hospital if 
they are needed. 

New York City has thousands of these vehicles. Each 
belongs to its own particular district, serves its own 



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To Carry those who Suffer 

particular hospital, and is ready to start at a minute's 
notice. 

Dispensaries also have their own districts. There are 
several times as many dispensaries as hospitals in New 
York City, and indeed there should be, for they give free 
medicines and free advice to citizens who are not ill 
enough to go to bed, whereas the hospitals are only for 
those who are ill enough to spend most of their time 
lying down. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LIST 

The reference books are grouped under the chapters to which they belong. 

CHAPTERS I, II, III 

BowMAKER, Edward, The Housing of the Working Classes. 1895. 

De Forest, Robert W., and Veiller, Lawrence, The Tenement House 
Problem. 1903. 

De Forest, Robert W., Recent Progress in Tenement House Reform. 
From the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science. 1904. 

Lederle, Ernest, New York City's Sanitary Problems and their Solu- 
tion. From the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science. 1904. 

Riis, Jacob A., How the Other Half Lives. 1890. 

Riis, Jacob A., A Ten Years' Fight. 1902. 

Woods, Robert A., The City Wilderness. 1898. 

Woods, Robert A., Americans in Process. 1903. 

CHAPTERS V, VI, VII, VIII 

Baker, M. N., Municipal Engineering and Sanitation. 1902. 

Chapin, C. v., Municipal Sanitation in the United States. 1901. 

De Forest, Robert W., and Veiller, Lawrence, The Tenement House 

Problem. 1903. 
Riis, Jacob A., A Ten Years* Fight 1902. 
Stearns, F. L., General Information about the Department of Street 

Cleaning. New York City. 1905. 
Waring, George E., Jr., Street Cleaning. 1899. 
Woodbury, John McGaw, A Lecture. 1903. 

253 

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254 TOWN AND CITY 

CHAPTER IX 

Banks, G. Nugent, Fires in London. Blackwood's Magazine, August, 

1901. 
Bonner and Veiller, Tiie Tenement House Problem (chapters on fires 

and fire escapes). 1903. 
Riis, Jacob A., Out of Mulberry Street. 1898. 
Reports of the Fire Department of the City of New York. 1 900-1 903. 

CHAPTERS IV, X, XI, XVIII, XXVI, XXVII 

Anti-Smoking Bill; Its Passage through the Imperial Diet of Japan (a 
pamphlet). 1900. 

Boies, H. M., The Science of Penology. 1901. 

Booth, Charles, Life and Labor in London. 

Clark, Sir Andrew, The Action of Acohol upon Health. 

Gallinger, J. H., Scientific Testimony on Beer. Congressional Record, 
January 9, 1901. 

Madden, John, Shall We Drink Wine? 1899. 

Moore, Roderick Mackenzie, On the Comparative Mortality among 
Assured Lives of Abstainers and Nonabstainers from Alcoholic 
Beverages. Read before the Institute of Actuaries, November 30, 
1903. 

McClintock, Emory, On the Rates of Death Loss among Total Abstainers 
and Others. 1895. 

New Voice (current numbers). 1 904-1 905. 

Relation of the Liquor Traffic to Pauperism, Crime, and Insanity. The 
Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, The 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1896. 

Rowntree and Sherwell, The Temperance Problem and Social Reform. 

Seaver, J. W., Effects of Nicotine. The Arena, Vol. XVII, 1897. 

Smyth, A. Watt, Physical Deterioration : Its Causes and its Cure. 1904. 

Warner, Amos G., American Chanties. 1894. 

Whittaker, Thomas P., Alcoholic Beverages and Longevity. Contempo- 
rary Review, March, 1904. 

Van Cise, Joel C, Effect of Total Abstinence on the Death Rate. 1904. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LIST 255 

CHAPTERS XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI 

Bracket, Dexter, Report on the Measurement, Consumption, and Waste 
of Water supplied to the Metropolitan Water District. Journal of the 
New England Water Works Association^ June, 1904. 

Prescott, S. C, and Winslow, C. E. A., Elements of Water Bacteri- 
ology. 1904. 

Reports of tile Board- of Public Service of Cleveland, Ohio. 1962- 
1903. 

Report of the Commission on the Additional Water Supply for the City of 
New York. 1903. 

Reports of the Massachusetts State Board of Health. 1890-1895. 

Reports of the Water Board of the City of Lawrence, Massachusetts, 
1 902- 1 905. 

Sedgwick, William T., Principles of Sanitary Science and The Public 
Health. 1902. 

Water-Softening Plant, at Oberlin, Ohio. By W. B. Gerrish. 1905. 

Water Famine Danger in New York City. Engineering News, £)ecember 
IS, 1904. 

Water Supply of the City of New York. Prepared by the Merchants 
Association of New York, 1900. 



CHAPTERS XIX, XX 

Belcher, S. D., Clean Milk. 1903. 

Blyth, Alexander Wynter, Foods : Their Composition and Analysis. 
1896. 

GoLER, George W., The Origin, Development, and Results of Municipal 
Milk Work in Rochester, New York. 1906. 

Goler, George W., The Influence of the Municipal Milk Supply upon 
the Deaths of Young Children. 1903. 

Health Department of the City of New York. A Statement of Facts. Pub- 
lished by The City Club of New York, 1903. 

Report of the Department of Health of the City of New York. 1902. 

Sedgwick, William T., Principles of Sanitary Science. 1902. 



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256 TOWN AND CITY 

CHAPTERS XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXV 

Abbott, A. C, The Hygiene of Transmissible Disease. 1901. 

Biggs, Herman M., Tuberculosis and the Tenement House Problem 

(appearing in The Tenement House Problem). 1903. 
Brandt, Lilian, Directory of Institutions and Societies dealing with 

Tuberculosis in the United States and Canada. 1904. 
Handbook on the Prevention of Tuberculosis. Being the First Annual 

Report of the Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis of the 

Charity Organization Society of the City of New York, 1903. 
Radot, M. v., Louis Pasteur : His Life and Labors. 1885. 
Report of the Health Department of the City of New York. 1902. 
Sternberg, George M., Infection and Immunity. 1903. 

CHAPTERS XXVIII, XXIX 

Chase, H. Lincoln, and Nyhen, J. Albert C, Abatement of the Mos- 
quito Nuisance in Brookline. Journal of the Massachusetts Association 
of the Boards of Health, 1903. 

Grassi, Battista, Die Malaria. Studien eines Zoologisten, 1901. 

Howard, L. O., Mosquitoes: How They Live; How They Carry Dis- 
ease ; How They are Classified ; How They may be Destroyed. 1902. 

Reports of the War Department. 1901. 

CHAPTER XXX 

Bellevue and Allied Hospitals. City of New York, Annual Report, 1903. 
Charities (current numbers). 1 900-1 905. 

HuRD, Henry M., Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing. Charities Review, 
October and November, 1900. 



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QUESTIONS 



Chapter I 

AVhat advantage has a city man over an Indian on the prairie? 
Mention some ways in which city people help each other. Describe 
the growth of New York from 1 700 to 1 900. What changes were made 
in houses and streets? What did the city do, with a hundred thousand 
fresh arrivals every year? What is an air shaft? Who suffer most in 
dark, unventilated rooms? Why do people crowd into certain parts of 
a city? 

Chapter II 

What happens to overcrowded halls, rooms, and houses? What 
state of things did Mr. Riis find in New York City? What three con- 
ditions are best for microbes and worst for men? What is the death 
rate in healtyul cities? What increases the death rate? What are 
rear tenements? Why are they sometimes called "infant slaughter- 
houses"? What do statistics prove about one-room and four-room 
tenements? In what other way may crowded tenements be a source 
of danger to citizens? Give two reasons why every part of a city 
should be clean and well ventilated. 

Chapter III 

What is a tenement house? What city department takes charge of 
them in New York? How many inspectors were appointed in 1902? 
Describe the work of one of them. What three things did the department 

257 



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258 TOWN AND CITY 

plan to do? Describe an "old-law" tenement; a ** new-law" tene- 
ment. How did citizens show delight over the new houses? What 
was done to old tenements? What was the New York death rate in 
1866? in 1903? When the death rate in New York in one year is 
seventeen instead of eighteen per thousand, how many lives are saved ? 

Chapter IV 

How did Massachusetts study the connection between crime and 
alcohol iix 1880? Give the number of alcohol arrests; of all other 
arrests. What was the record for twenty years before that? In 1900 
what share of the Elmira convicts had drunken ancestors? How 
did those ancestors increase the expenses of the state of New York? 
How do sober people pay the drunkard's bills? How is the money 
raised? Describe the wave of temperance in Ireland^ Mention some 
differences between Vineland and New Britain in 1893. What things 
are people glad to be taxed for? 

Chapi'Er V 

What difference is there in the air of different streets? What advan- 
tage have tall people over short people in the matter of street air? 
Who cleaned the streets of New York City in 1898? What was their 
condition ? What did Colonel Waring decide about street sweepers and 
politics? What were the sweepers called ? Why? Describe the division 
of the work. What was the result? Tell what is done with the snow in 
New York City after a storm. 

Chapter VI 

What did the juvenile leagues do? Tell about their reports. Give 
the civic pledge. Describe the parade in 1896. What effect did New 
York's example have on other cities? 



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QUESTIONS 259 

Chapter VII 

Who is the head of the street-cleaning department in your city? 
What is the New York law about throwing things into the street? 
What should go into garbage receptacles? into ash cans? into rub- 
bish bundles? Why are these kept apart? What was formerly done 
with all the waste material of New York City? Which part of it now 
goes to Riker^s Island? Which part to Barren Island? Describe the 
treatment it gets. . What becomes of rubbish bundles? How do they 
bienefit Williamsburg Bridge? What three things does New York do 
with her waste? 

Chapter VIII 

Why are parks and playgrounds important? How did New York 
policeioaen help the park committee? What is the New York law about 
playgrounds and schoolhouses? Why are playgrounds put on the 
roof of school buildings? Tell what you can of Boston's parks. What 
is the usual charge for a public bath in the United States? Why do 
cities wish their citizens to bathe? Mention three important points 
about city baths. Why are tubs objectionable? What advantage has 
a shower bath? Mention some of the gymnastic apparatus in Seward 
Park. 

Chapter IX 

What apparatus does a fireman use? What must he learn to do? 
Where does he have the hardest work? Give two important fire laws 
for the new-law tenement houses. Tell all you can about fire escapes, 
— stating where they should be, and describing the difference between 
the right and the wrong kind. Why is there a law against encumbered 
fire escapes? What is the fine? What should you do in case of fire? 
Describe some school that saved itself by the fire drill. Mention some 
fires that are caused by carelessness. 



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26o TOWN AND CITY 

Chapter X 

In former times what did railroad men do about using alcohol? 
What did other people think about those men? What change do we 
now find? Tell what you can of railroad changes within eighty years. 
Why are more careful railroad men needed now than in early days? 
What did railroad companies first notice about drinking and accidents? 
What rule did they make first? What other rules were made later? 
How do we know that the railroad business of the country is one of 
the largest, strongest, and strictest temperance societies in the world? 

Chapter XI 

What other great business does temperance work? What did people 
formerly think about alcohol and long life? What did a certain life 
insurance company do in 1840? How did that company make its dis- 
covery about total abstinence and long life? What was the discovery? 
What did other societies also find out? What diflFerence does this 
sometimes make in paying for life insurance? When men train as 
athletes what is the rule about using alcohol? 

Chapter XII 

What did New York City do for water in early times? What did she 
finally do? What danger threatened in 1900? Tell what you can 
about Croton River, the dam, and the aqueduct in 1905. What has 
New York done about getting a larger supply of water? How does any 
city know how much to plan for? What did Massachusetts learn about 
the use of meters? Why does a city without meters waste more than a 
city with them? 

Chapter XIII 

What did the Romans do for drinking water? What two water 
lessons has China learned ? What did the cholera records for London 



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QUESTIONS 261 

prove? Describe the epidemic for 1854. What was the cholera notice? 
Give the circle of the water history. How may pure rain water become 
impure? Which is the special water disease in the United States? 
How do typhoid microbes reach the water? Why do we need to know 
the history of surface water? When is drinking water perfectly safe? 



Chapter XIV 

Describe the epidemic in Plymouth, Pennsylvania. Where did 
the typhoid microbes come from? What did that one epidemic cost 
Plymouth? What three points must be kept in mind when men search 
for a water supply for a town? Give the history of Cleveland and 
her drinking water. What became of her sewage? Tell about the 
epidemic in 1903. What did Cleveland do? What difference did the 
new arrangement make in the typhoid death rate? What did Chicago 
do to improve the drinking water? 

Chapter XV 

Describe the growth of cities on the Merrimac River. What drink- 
ing water did they use? What became of their sewage? Which houses 
on the river were sure of pure drinking water? Even after they learned 
about microbes what did scientists still think about water that is in 
motion? What difference does it make whether a river carries much or 
little sewage? What city on the Merrimac had the most typhoid deaths? 
Which was farthest downstream? How far is Lawrence from Lowell? 
Give the experience of Newburyport in 1893. What connection did 
people finally notice between typhoid in Lowell and in Lawrence? 
Since Lawrence always had Lowell sewage in her drinking water, why 
did she not always have typhoid fever? What did the Massachusetts 
Board of Health do to help these cities? 



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262 TOWN AND CITY 

Chapter XVI 

What did the Massachusetts Board of Health advise Lawrence to 
do? How were the filters made? Describe the water before it went into 
the filters and after it left them. After two years how did Lawrence 
know that her filters still worked well? In what way does the Board of 
Health help other cities? Besides advising sand filters for Lawrence, 
what else has the board done there? What has that experiment station 
learned about sewage? What is the difference between sand filters for 
water and for sewage? What becomes of the microbes in the water 
and sewage? What is the difference between a continuous filter and 
an intermittent filter? 

Chapter XVII 

In war, as a rule, how many soldiers in every hundred are killed by 
bullets and how many by microbes? Why did Japan need to change 
the record? What did she decide to do about preventable diseases? 
How did she go to work to save her soldiers? Tell all you can about 
it. What command was given on war ships before a battle? When the 
war was over what change had Japan made in the death record for 
bullets and microbes? 

Chapter XVIII 

Who was Professor Seaver? What did he wish to find out. about 
tobacco? What records did he keep for nine years? What did these 
records show about the age of smokers and non-smokers who entered 
college? What difference was there in the height of the men? in the 
size of their lungs? Into what three^ groups did he divide the college 
students? Which group gained most in every direction? Which were 
the best scholars? Why did the Japanese government discuss the sub- 
ject of tobacco? What arguments did the speakers use? What was 
the result of the great discussion? 



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QUESTIONS 263 

Chapter XIX 

How did the Board of Health know that the Springfield epidemic in 
1892 came from milk? Tell what you can about the New York babies 
and the milk they used in 1903. What did the health department wish 
to learn? What is pasteurized milk? What is the important difference 
between raw milk and pasteurized milk? Which kind proved to be 
best for the babies? In what two ways may microbes damage milk? 
What does boiling do to microbes? What are the three important 
conditions of pure milk? What two points was the milk investigator 
to look into? 

Chapter XX 

Describe a model dairy. Describe one of the opposite kind. Why 
does not straining the milk take out the microbes? What three facts 
does a model dairy teach about microbes? What does a "microbe 
dairy '* teach? Give some of the instructions that the New York health 
department send out in regard to milk. Besides watching the milk 
supply what else do city inspectors do? Describe the work done in 
Rochester, New York. 

Chapter XXI 

Who first discovered disease microbes? Describe the harm they 
were doing to silkworms. What four facts did Pasteur learn from his 
two sets of eggs? How did he get healthy worms to eat microbes? 
What was the result? As a rule, how did healthy worms catch the 
disease? Describe the hook discovery. What did Pasteur decide to be 
the only way to raise healthy worms? How do women and girls help 
in this matter in France? What four silkworm discoveries are more 
important to men than to worms? 



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264 TOWN AND CITY 

Chapter XXII 

How did Pasteur raise his weak and his strong microbes? How did 
he use these microbes when he wished to save an animal from splenic 
fever? In what way did his discoveries save the hves of thousands of 
sheep and cows in France? How may hydrophobia be prevented? 
What do microbes make while they multiply? Is it the microbe or the 
toxin that does most harm in a case of diphtheria? What cures diph- 
theria? Which animals raise antitoxin for us? Tell as much as you can 
about the way in which it is done. What do we mean when we say a 
horse is immune? Why should antitoxin be used as promptly as possible 
after diphtheria begins? 

Chapter XXIII 

Why did Cleveland doctors hurry so with their vaccinating? What 
started the epidemic on Ponape? Describe it. What is the difference 
between inoculation and vaccination? What did New York City do to 
check a smallpox epidemic in 1902? What were some of the duties 
of the inspectors? How many citizens were vaccinated within six 
months? What led Dr. Jenner to his discovery? How is vaccine 
raised? How often should we be vaccinated? 

Chafi^er XXIV 

How many people died from tuberculosis in New York City in 1904? 
How many in the United States? Who discovered the tubercle bacilli? 
When? Give some facts about the microbe. In which parts of a city 
do we find the most consumption? Describe "Lung Block." How 
does one case of consumption in a room lead to others? Where do 
microbes stay? How do they reach the air? What objection is there 
to dry sweeping and a feather duster? How do microbes reach the 
lungs? Give their history after that. What do the lung cells try to do? 



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QUESTIONS 265 

Why is sputum dangerous? Do we inherit consumption? How may 
parents give consumption to children? Why is it important to know 
the history of the rooms we are to live in? 

Chapter XXV 

Give the triple motto used by those who fight tuberculosis. Mention 
two ways in which a city may save itself from tuberculosis. Tell what 
you can of the anti-tuberculosis work of New York City. In what way 
is tuberculosis like a fire in the lumber yard? Mention the four things 
which help cure consumption. How may people get fresh air even in a 
city? Tell what you can about tents and outdoor life for consumptives. 
What are the five tuberculosis D's? Give the golden rule of the anti- 
tuberculosis leagues. 

Chapter XXVI 

What experience did an American nurse have in Havana? In Pro- 
fessor Guttstadt^s tuberculosis death-list which class of people stands 
highest? How can you explain this? What did Professor Adams learn 
about cholera? What did Dr. Thomas learn from the rabbits? Tell 
what you can about the remarks of the Toledo doctors. What does 
Dr. Atwater say about the effect of alcohol on the mental functions? 
Give what you can from Professor Demme's record of intemperate 
families and temperate families. 

Chapter XXVII 

Who was Little Turtle? What help did he ask of the white man? 
Repeat some of the things he said. What treaty did the United States 
make with the Five Civilized Tribes? What did Abraham Lincoln 
believe about alcohol? What did he advise people to do? Did he 
ever change his mind on the temperance question? When was the 
Lincoln Legion started? How fast did it grow? Give the Lincoln 
pledge. What does the Lincoln Legion do? 



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266 TOWN AND CITY 

Chapter XXVIII 

In former times where did people think malaria came from? Why 
did those two men live on the Roman Campagna? Describe the house. 
How can we tell anopheles from culex mosquitoes? Which kind went 
from Rome to London laden with malarial blood? What was the 
result? How do the malaria microbes get from one person to another? 
What five points does the life of the microbe in man and mosquito 
prove? What special fever was common in Havana? Describe the 
experiments in Camp Lazear. What did the experiments prove? 

Chapter XXIX 

What happened in New Orleans in 1905? What did the citizens 
decide to do about it? Give all the facts you can about mosquitoes. 
Describe the mosquito war. What weapons were used? Who did the 
fighting? What was the result? Why did Brookline fight mosquitoes? 
How did she go to work? How did frogs and fish help? What has 
Brookline accomplished? 

Chapter XXX 

In China how did the natives formerly treat a man with the plague? 
What used to be the objection to our hospitals? What two special things 
does a contagious-disease hospital accomplish? Describe the hospital 
in St. Paul. Give the history of the Bellevue Hospital. In these days 
what special diseases have special hospitals ? Describe St. Luke's Hos- 
pital. What is an ambulance? How is it furnished? What is the 
difference between a hospital and a dispensary? 



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GLOSSARY 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 

a as in f&te, sen&te, f&t, arm, §11, ask, what, cSxe. 

e 

ee 

i 

o 

00 

u 

y 

au 
aw 
oy 



mete, ^vent, m6t, her, th^re, obey. 

feet. 

ice, idea. It, sir, machine. 

Old, ftbey, n5t, move, wolf, son, h6rse, work. 

food, foot. 

use, tlnite, tip, fiir, rule, pull. 

fly, myself, baby, myrrh. 

author. 

saw. ew 

boy. ou 

c (unmarked) as in call ; 9 
ch (unmarked) " child ; ^h 
g (unmarked) ** go; g(=j) 
ng as in ring. n(=ng) 

§(=z) ** is. si(=sh) 

th (unmarked) as in thin ; tii 
X (unmarked) ** vex; x(=gz) 



as in new. 


oi as in boil. 


** out. 


ow ** 


cow. 


" mice. 






" chaise; 


€h(=k) »' 


school. 


*» cage. 






1 " ink. 


ph(=f) '* 


phantom. 


1 ** tension; 


; 8i (= zh) ** 


vision. 


»* then. 


ti"(=sh) " 


motion. 


** exact. 







Obscure sounds . a, g, i, etc 

aZm§'hous6, poorhouse. 

ilm^bu lance, a vehicle for the sick 

or injured, 
an 6ph'e 16§, mosquitoes that carry 

malaria, 
antitoxin, a substance which 

neutralizes the action of a toxin, 

or poison, 
ap pa ra'ttis, a collection of tools 

or materials to accomplish some 

purpose. 



Silent letters are italicized. 



aq'u$diict, an artificial channel 

(k)(w) 

for conveying water, 
ath'lete, one trained to exercises 
of agility and strength. 

ba qll'lds, a germ which is the 
cause of various diseases. 

bac t6 rl 61 '6 gist, one who makes 
a study of microbes. 

bl 5l'6 gist, one who studies the 
science of life. 



267 



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268 



TOWN AND CITY 



bri gade', a name given to a large 
bcxiy of soldiers. 

cim pa'gn ^, an open plain. 

cam paii/n , contmued operations 
for the accomplishment of some 
purpose. 

can'oer, a kind of tumor ; a danger- 
ous disease. 

car'bSn dl 6x1d, carbonic acid, a 
gas. 

Qgn'tl m6 ter, the looth part of a 
meter; or .3937 of an inch. 

qev tlfl cStte, a written declaration. 

ehgm'l cal, belonging to the science 
of chemistry. 

chSl'er a, a dangerous epidemic dis- 
ease. 

chr^s' a lis, the form that many in- 
sects assume between the cater- 
pillar and the winged stage ; a 
cocoon. 

cocoon', a silken case made by 
some worms and insects to pro- 
tect their eggs. 

c6m mls'si6n, persons intrusted 
with some special duties. 

c6m mit'tee, persons appointed to 
attend to any matter. 

c6n stl tu'tion, a set of rules for 
the government of a society 
or state. 

c6n stimp'tion, a disease of the 
lungs. 



c6a ta'giotis, liable to spread from 
one to another. 

c6n tami nate, to soil ; to corrupt. 

cor'piis qle, a small particle. 

cOr'rl dor, a passage or gallery. 

cul6x, the common, harmless mos- 
quito. 

dam'ig6§, that which is paid to 
repair a loss. 

d6l e ga'tion, persons selected to 
act for others. 

di'agram, a mathematical figure 
or drawing. 

diggst'er, a strong, close vessel 
in which substances can be 
heated to a temperature above 
boiling. 

dilute', to thin by mixing with 
something. 

dlph the'rl a, an infectious disease 
of the throat. 

dls p6n'sa ry, a place in which med- 
icines are given to the poor. 

6 I6c trlQ'l ty, a power in nature 
exhibited in lightning, the pro- 
duction of heat, light, etc. 

epidemic, affecting numbers of 
persons at the same time. 

S vap'6 rate, to pass off in vapor. 

6x pSc'tb rate, to spit. 

6x po gl'tion, a public exhibition 
or show. 



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GLOSSARY 



269 



f aw'Qgt, a fixture for drawing liquid 

from a pipe or cask, 
f er'tl li zer, that which enriches or 

makes productive, 
flat, a series of rooms on one floor 

occupied by a single family, 
fltishlng, washing out; flooding 

drains or sewers to clean them, 
for'^ge, to search for food, 
fii'ml ga'tion, the act of applying 

smoke or fumes for various 

purposes. 

garHoige, refuse ; any worthless 
matter. 

gfil'a tin, a substance made by boil- 
ing bones and other animal sub- 
stances. It is used in glue and 
as a jelly for food. 

glazed, to cover with a glossy surface. 

gym na'gl tUn, a place for athletic 
exercises. 

h&ad qiiar'terg, the place where a 
chief officer lives or carries on 
business. 

hy dr6 pho'bl a, a disease caused 
by the bite of a mad dog. 

liy'gl 6ne, the science of the pres- 
ervation of health. 

lllu'mlnat Ing, supplying with 

light. 
Im mun^', exempt from disease. 



In qln'er ti tor, a furnace for burn- 
ing substances. 

In Ql'§i6n, a cut ; a gash. 

In 6c u la'tion, the act of introdu- 
cing a disease germ into the tis- 
sues for protection from a more 
severe form of the disease. 

In spfic'tor, one who oversees or 
examines. 

In ter mlt'tent, stopping at inter- 
vals. 

In tfe'tlne, the lower part of what 
is called the alimentary canal. 

In t6x'I c§.nt, that which intoxi- 
cates or makes drunk. 

ju'v^nlle, youthful. 

lab'Sratory, a place for opera- 
tions and experiments. 

lar'va (plural, larvae), an insect in 
the grub state. 

leagwe, persons united for some 
particular purpose. 

I6g1s la ture, a body of men in- 
vested with power to make laws. 

life In sur'auQe, a contract by 

(Bh) 

which a company for a sum of 
money agrees to pay to a man's 
heirs a certain amount in case 
of his death. 

ma la'rl a, a disease carried by 
mosquitoes. 



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270 



TOWN AND CITV 



me'ter, an instrument for measuring 
the quantity of gas or water used. 

met r6 pdll tan, belonging to a 
large city. 

mI'crObe, a creature so small that 
it can only be seen through a 
miscroscope. 

mi'cr6 scOpe, an instrument for ex- 
amining objects too small for the 
naked eye. 

mis d$ mgan'or, ill behavior ; fault. 

n^'tral Ize, to counteract ; to de- 
stroy the effect of. 

6x'y g6n, the element of the air 
that supports life. 

Par'lla ment, the legislative assem- 
bly of Great Britain. 

pas tewr'Ize, to treat certain dis- 
eases, especially hydrophobia, 
by a method devised by a 
French scientist named Pasteur. 

pa vll'ion, a tent : a movable habi- 
^ (y) 
tation. 

p6n 1 t6n'ti& vf, a prison in which 
convicts are confined for pun- 
ishment. 

p6l lute', to soil ; to corrupt. 

p6 ma'tQm, an ointment. 

Po'na pe, one of the Caroline Is- 
lands. 

pr6c la ma'tion, an official or gen- 
eral notice. 



quar'an tine, the separation from 
others of persons or objects 
commg from a neighborhood 
where there is dangerous con- 
tagious disease. 

rS^gp'tacb, a place to receive 
things. 

r6f 6r ma'tion, amendment; cor- 
rection. 

r$f6rm'at6ry, a place for the 
reformation of young crim- 
inals. 

r6 lay', those who relieve others by 
taking their places. 

r6§'er voir, a place where water is 

(vw6r) 

collected for use. 
r$ str!c'ti6n, limitation ; restraint. 

sand fll'ter, layers of gravel, coarse 
and fine sand, through which 
water runs and is purified. 

sani ti ry, relating to the preser- 
vation of health. 

scyiiie, an instrument for cutting 
hay or grain. 

sSn'teuQe, a decree or verdict of 
court. 

se'rara, the watery part of milk 
and blood. 

sew'ige, matter carried off in drains 
or sewers. 

sew'er, a canal made to carry off 
waste water. 



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GLOSSARY 



271 



s6 ltl'ti6n, a preparation made by 
dissolving a solid in a liquid. 

splenic, pertaining to the spleen. 

spu'ttoi,that which is spit or raised 
from the lungs. 

stitls'tlcs, a collection of facts 
relating to any people, industry, 
state, etc. 

stSg 6 myl A, a mosquito that car- 
ries yellow fever. 

stir'geon, one who performs manual 
operations on a patient. 

t6n'$ ment, house in which three 
or more families live and keep 
house separately, or where more 
than two families live on one 
floor. 



tSxIn, poison produced in the 

system, 
tu'ber cle, a small mass of diseased 

matter, 
tu ber ctL lo'sis, a disease which, in 

the lungs, is commonly called 

consumption. 

vac'Ql nate, to inoculate with virus 
from cows to prevent small- 
pox. 

v6l tin teer', one who enters a serv- 
ice of his own free will. 

wlg'gler, the young of the mos- 
quito. 

y6n, a Japanese coin. 



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INDEX 



Air shaft, definition, 4. 

quality of air in, 4. 

illustration, 7. 
Alcohol, expenses of, to state and city, 

23- 
in Suffolk County, 23. 
record of crime through, 24. 
effects, seen in Elmira, 24. 
poorhouse bills due to, 25. 
London paupers and, 25. 
jails, reformatories, etc., 26. 
experiments in sale of, 26. 
in New Britain and Vineland, 27. 
in Brockton, 28. 
in New York City, 28. 
attitude of railroads towards, 78. 
effect on employees, 78. 
public sentiment about, 81. 
accidents caused by, 81. 
result of laws against, 82. 
relation, to life insurance, 84-88. 
effect of, on health, 84. 
records of, since 1840, 84. 
relation to athletics, 88. « 

relation to city health, 213-220. 
relation to typhoid fever, 213. 
relation to tuberculosis, 214. 
relation to cholera, 2 1 5. 
relation to operations, 217. 
relation to heredity, 220. 
attitude of Indians towards, 221- 

223. 
Abraham Lincoln*s position in 

regard to, 224, 225. 
Lincoln Legion opposed to, 226, 227. 
Ambulance, 251. 



Anopheles mosquito, 229-231. 

Antitoxin, 180-183. 

Aqueduct, 99, loo. 

Ashes, collection and disposal, 49, 50. 

Babies, in single block, 5. 

in rear tenements, 13. 
Barber, about plague in China, 244. 
Barren Island, location of, 52. 

garbage disposal, 53, 54. 
Baths, public, in Boston, 62. 

in Chicago, 63. 

in New York, 64. 

merits of tub and shower, 66. 

relation to health, 66. 
Beer, testimony of physicians in regard 

to, 216,219. 
Behring, Dr. Emil, 179. 
Bellevue Hospital, 247-249. 
Berlin, death rate in 1885, 14. 
BlackwelPs Island, 50. 
Boies, H. M., on cost of crime, 25. 
Boston, damp cellars, 1 1 . 

parks and beach baths, 61, 62. 

pure food, 164. 
Breckenridge, Cleopas, 226. 
Bridewell prison and reform, 27. 
Broad Street well and cholera, 102-104. 
Brockton, experiment with saloons, 28. 
Brookline and mosquitoes, 241. 
Burgen, S. H., 216. 

Character and environment, 1 5. 
Chicago, free baths, 63. 

sewage disposal, 1 1 5. 

change in death rate, 116. 



273 



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274 



TOWN AND CITY 



China, drinking water, loo-ioi. 
Cholera, studied by Professor Adams, 

215. 
Cities, growth, 1-8. 

congested conditions, 4-6. 

explanation of overcrowding, 6-7. 

results of overcrowding, 8, 10. 
Civic pledge, 43. 
Cleveland, water supply, 111-115. 

pure food, 164. 

vaccination, 184. 
Committee on the Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis for the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society, 204. 
Consumption, ages at which mortality 
is greatest, 200. 

city deaths from, 201. 

not hereditary, 202. 

how communicated, 202. 

how cured, 206. 
Croton River dam, aqueduct, etc., 89- 

92. 
Culex mosquito, 229. 

eggs, 237. 

wigglers, 240. 

De Forest, Robert W., 13. 

Demme, Professor, 219. 

Detroit, children and the fire drill, 75. 

antitoxin prepared at, 180. 

vaccine prepared at, 191. 
Digesters on Barren Island, 54. 
Diphtheria, method of cure, 180. 
Disease, three conditions, 12. 
Dispensary, 252. 

Dover Street bath house, 63, 65. 
Drainage Canal Case, 117. 
Drunkenness, expense, 25. 

effect on posterity, 220. 

Elmira Reformatory, history of con- 
victs, 24. 
Epidemic, in London, 102-104. 
in Plymouth, 107-109. 



Epidemic, in Cleveland, 113. 

in Newburyport, 121. 

in Lowell and Lawrence, 123. 

in Springfield, 149. 

safeguards against, 174. 

on Ponape, 185-187. 

in Glasgow, 215. 

in New Orleans, 236. 
Experiment station, 128. 

Filter, sand, how made, 125, 128. 

what it accomplishes, 129. 

continuous, 131. 

intermittent, 132. 
Fire, disposal of garbage by, 52. 

engine, 68. 

description of, 68. 

directions for escape from, 75. 

in Detroit school, 75. 

in New York school, 76. 

due to carelessness, 76. 
Fire escapes, New York requirements, 
72. 

encumbered and unencumbered, 

73^ 74, 77- 
Fireman, his work, 69. 

requirements of, 70. 
Fisher, Irving, at sanatorium, 210. 
Food inspection, 149-163. 

Garbage, ashes, and rubbish, 45-57. 
» card of directions, 46. 

disposal of, before 1896, 47. 

dumping boats, 47. 

destination of, 52, 53. 

treatment of, 54, 55. 

constituents of, 54. 
Guttstadt, Professor, 214. 

Hakuai Maru, hospital ship, 1 39. 

Havana, yellow fever in, 232-236. 

Hester Street, 61, 66. 

High Bridge, 90. 

Hiroshima, reserve hospital, 138. 



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INDEX 



275 



Hospital, in St. Paul, 246-247. 

Bellevue, 247-249. 

St. Luke's, 250-251. 
Howe, Dr., on alcohol and idiots, 220. - 
Hydrophobia, treatment of, 178. 

Ice and microbes, 106. 
Incinerators, in New York, 52. 

power supplied by heat from, 52. 

bridges lighted by power from, 52. 

buildings heated by power from, 52. 
Indian life on prairie, i. 
"Infant slaughter houses," 14. 
Inspectors of tenements, 16. 

experiences, 17. 

reports, 18. 

Jackson Street, fire in, 72. 
Japan, war with Russia, 133-140. 

reversing death rate, 139. 

action against tobacco, 1 41-148. 
Jenner, Dr., and vaccine, 190. 
Juvenile street-cleaning leagues, 39-44. 

Koch, Dr. Robert, and tuberculosis, 193. 

Lake Erie as drinking water, iii. 
Lake Michigan and Chicago, 115. 
Lawrence, typhoid fever, 1 21-124. 

sand filters, 125-127. 

diminished death rate, 126. 
Lazear, Camp, 233-235. 
Life insurance, methods, 84. 

records since 1840, 84. 

standard of life table, 85. 
Lincoln, Abraham, on temperance, 224, 
225. 

his pledge, 225. 

Legion, 226-227. 
Little Turtle, address, 221-223. 
London, drunken paupers, 25. 

overcrowding, 9. 

record of epidemics, 102. 
Loretto Leonard, suffocated, 73. 



Lowell and typhoid fever, 121- 124. 
Ludlow Street, description, 32. 
" Lung Block," 195. 

Malaria, how conveyed, 232. 
Martin, Moses, 226. 
Massachusetts, study of crime, 23. 

" liquor offenses," 24. 

Board of Health, 1 27. 

experiment station, 128. 
Mathew, Father, 26. 
Merrimac River, 11 8-1 22. 
Metropolitan Water District, 93, 97. 

meters in, 93, 97. 

table of water consumption, 94. 

detection of waste, 95. 
Microbes, and overcrowding, 8. 

favorable conditions for, 12. 

in street air, 30, 31. 

flooded from street, 34. 

on unwashed people, 64. 

how killed, 102. 

giving cholera, 103, 104. 

never evaporate, 104. 

in ice, 106. 

in Chicago sewage, 117. 

in drinking water, 119. 

in running water, 1 20. 

of typhoid fever, 1 24. 

filters to remove, 125-132. 

abundance in nature, 130. 

their needs, 130. 

their work in filters, 1 31-132. 

in milk, 149. 

effect on babies, 150. 

why harmful, 152. 

to reduce numbers, 159, 161. 

number allowed in milk by New 
York, 153. 

number allowed in milk by Roches- 
ter, 161. 

strong and weak, 1 74. 

Pasteur's experiments with, 174- 
^77- 



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276 



TOWN AND CITY 



Microbes, producing toxin, 179-180. 

diphtheria, 182-183. 

tuberculosis, 193. 
Milk, pure and impure, 150-163. 

conditions of purity, 153, 159. 

pasteurized, 151. 

how damaged, 1 52. 

inspection, 155-157. 
Mississippi River, 115. 
Model dairy, 1 56. 
Moore, R. M., life insurance reports, 

85, 86. 
Morpeth, Lord, statistics of crime, 26. 
Mosquitoes, why they should go, 228- 

235- 
from Rome to London, 230. 
facts about, 238-239. 
treatment, in New Orleans, 237- 

240. 
treatment, in Brookline, 241-243. 
Mulberry Bend, characterization, 9. 
illustration, 10. 
as park, 59. 

*• Neighbor Mine," 42. 

Nelson, insurance reports, 86, 87. 

New Britain and Vineland compared, 

27- 
New Orleans and yellow fever, 236-240. 
New York City, growth of, 2-7. 

deaths in tenements, 13. 

work of tenement inspectors, 16-17. 

reforms in, 16-22. 

change in death rate, 21. 

statistics of saloons, arrests, etc., 28. 

street cleaning in 1895, 3^~3^' 

public baths, 64. 

fire department, 71-74. 

water supply, 89, 90-92, 98. 

danger from drought, 91. 

to escape drought, 92. 

Health Department, 150, 153, 160, 
182, 183, 188, 195, 204, 207. 

milk inspection, 155-157. 



New York City, milk requirements, 160. 

pure food, 164. 

tuberculosis, 192, 195, 196,200-201, 
203-205, 207. 

diphtheria, 182-183. 

smallpox, 188-190. 

law against spitting, 204. 

preventing malaria, 241. 

hospitals, 247-251. 
Newburyport epidemic, 121. 
"New-law houses," 19, 20. 

Obata, T., 146. 

Oberlin, water supply, 109, no. 

Lincoln Legion, 226. 
" Old-law houses," 19. 
Omura, on use of tobacco, 145. 

Parks and playgrounds, 58, 59. 

policemen testify about, 59, 60. 

map, made, 60. 

New York law about, 60. 

for schoolhouses, 61. 

in New York, 61. 

in Boston, 61. 
Pasteur, Louis, 167-172. 

four discoveries, 173. 

preventing splenic fever, 174-177. 
Peiho River, loi. 
Plymouth epidemic, 107-109. 
Ponape, smallpox, 185-187. 
Poole, Ernest, 196. 

Railroad accident in 1905, 80. 
Railroads, growth, 79-80. 

temperance laws, 81-83. 
Rear tenements, 12-13. 
Riis, J. A., II, 24, 68. 
Riker's Island, construction, 48-50. 
Rivington Street bath, 64. 
Rochester, and pure milk, 161 -163. 

lives saved, 163. 

case of smallpox, 184. 
Roman Campagna, 228. 



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INDEX 



277 



Romans, drinking water used by, 99. 
Rome, anopheles sent to London, 230. 
Rubbish, collection and disposal, 50-52. 
Russia, war with Japan, 133-134. 
Rutgers Street, fire, 72. 

St. Louis, getting Chicago sewage, 116- 
117. 

New York exhibit at, 57. 
St. Luke's Hospital, 250-251. 
Scaling ladders, 69. 
Schoolhouses and playgrounds, 61. 
Scows and garbage, 53. 
Seaman, Major L., 133, 138. 
Seaver, J. W., 141-143. 
Sedgwick, William T., 122-123. 
Sewage, of Cleveland, 11 2-1 13. 

of Chicago, 115. 

its purification, 125-132. 
Seward Park, 66-67. 
Silkworms and microbes, 165-173. 
Slocum steamboat, disaster, 192. 
Smallpox and vaccination, 1 84-191. 
Smithfield prison, 27. 
Snow, its removal, 36-37. 
Spanish- American War, 133. 
Spartans, care of children, 58. 
Splenic fever prevented, 174-177. 
Springfield epidemic, 149. 
Stegomyia and yellow fever, 233. 
Stony Brook and typhoid fever, 123. 
Street cleaning, and politics, 33. 

removal of snow, 35. 

contractors for rubbish, 51. 

department of, in New York, 56, 57. 

work of the leagues, 39-44. 
Street sweepers, costume and work, 34. 

numbers in 1906, 38. 
Street sweepings, collection, 49. 

destination, 49. 
Streets, clean and unclean, 30. 

children crowded out, 3. 

flushing, 38. 

transformation, 35. 



Suffolk County, crime records, 23. 
Sweeping machines, 34. 

Tenement House Department, 16- 

21. 
Tenement houses, height, 3. 
crowded condition, 4. 
defined, 16. 

fire requirements, 71-72. 
Thomas, Dr., makes alcohol experi- 
ments, 216. 
Tientsin, 1 00-101. 
Tobacco, 1 41-148. 

proclamation of Emperor of Japan, 

141. 
investigations of Professor Seaver, 

141-143. 
as prohibited in Germany, 144. 
prohibited at West Point and An- 
napolis, 144. 
Toledo Blade and beer, 216-220. 
Toxin, 179-183. 
Tubercle bacillus, 193-194. 

multiplication of, in lungs, 199. 
Tuberculosis in New York City, 192, 
195, 196, 200. 
war against, 203. 

work of Charity Organization So- 
ciety respecting, 204. 
sanatoria for, 209. 
rules for prevention, 211. 
the five D's, 212. 
in different occupations, 214. 
Typhoid fever, 105. 

in Plymouth, 107-108. 
in Clevieland, 114-115. 
relation of, to drinking water, 119- 

123- 
taken from milk, 149. 

Vaccination, 1 84-1 91. 
Ventilation, in tenements, 4. 

overcrowding and, 10. 

relation to death rate, 14. 



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278 



TOWN AND CITY 



Vermilion River, no. 
Vineland and New Britain, 27. 

Waring, Colonel, 32-35, 46. 
Water, New York supply, 89. 

increased need of, 90. 

amount needed per capita, 94. 

waste, in Milton, 95. 

usual methods of waste, 96-97. 

purified by evaporation, 104. 

how contaminated, 105. 

disease from, 106. 



Water, how classified, 106. 

Oberlin supply, 1 09-1 10. 

Cleveland supply,* 1 1 i-i 13. 

of the Merrimac River, 1 18-122. 
its purification, 125, 126. 

as used by Japanese army, 136-137. 
«» White Wings," 34. 
Williamsburg Bridge, incinerator, 52. 
Woodbury. Dr. John McGaw, 38, 56. 

Yellow fever, experiments, 234-235. 
in New Orleans, 236-240. 



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